In this book, the author explores the relationship between colonial experience and ideological perspective. Ngugi, an anglophone, views neo-colonial exploitation mainly in terms of the political domination of African nations by the West through its economy. On the other hand, Sembene, a francophone, sees the foreign control of the African economy as detrimental to African cultural values. However, due to the Marxist orientation of the two authors, both consider the African elite to be the perpetrators of the exploitative system imposed by former colonial powers. They believe that only a revolution spearheaded by the masses can free Africa from neo-colonial exploitation.