The history of Scandinavia's integration into the European World-Economy during the «long sixteenth century» (ca. 1475-1625) is explored for the first time in this stimulating book. Although its focus is on the latter part of the period, the study brings together the long-term developments that affected Scandinavia from the end of the Middle Ages to the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. By combining his own in-depth research with current studies of Scandinavian and Baltic landscapes, the author documents the decisive influence of geography, socio-economic conditions and political structures on responses to economic change. The study thus shatters, once and for all, the notion of a uniform response to economic integration in Europe's northern periphery.