Between 1535 and 1558, Bishops Gardiner, Tunstal, and Bonner, the theologian Richard Smith, the layman Miles Huggarde, and other traditionalists mounted a spirited defense of Catholic teaching. Ellen Macek's
The Loyal Opposition breaks new ground by analyzing the intellectual and theological basis of their polemics on the key issues of justification and the Eucharist. It demonstrates how they drew upon a blend of scholastic and humanistic elements to oppose religious innovation while simultaneously submitting to the schism with Rome. In conclusion, it reassesses the fatal weaknesses and enduring contributions of their position.