As Fr. Gerald McCool has shown, post-Vatican II Catholic theological and philosophical thought became increasingly characterized by a pluralistic outlook. The eventual triumph of pluralism was viewed by many as an intellectual liberation from an inauthentic and dogmatic Thomism. Others saw in it an unfortunate capitulation of «true theology» to the relativism of «meaningful religious experience.» The movement known as transcendental Thomism was one of the primary forces behind the contemporary emergence of Catholic pluralism. This book reconsiders the genesis and developing implications of transcendental Thomism. The centerpiece of the study is a previously untranslated correspondence between Joseph Maréchal, S.J. and his capable critic, Jacques Maritain. Also included are newly translated excerpts from other critical contemporaries of Fr. Maréchal.