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The History of Education Under Apartheid, 1948-1994

The Doors of Learning and Culture Shall be Opened


Peter Kallaway

The issue of education in apartheid South Africa has provided one of the most fascinating anomalies in modern educational history. For those of us who were schooled under apartheid, who were teachers in government schools, and who marched with the teachers and scholars in the seemingly endless cycles of resistance and repression, it was often difficult to imagine a world without the injustices, the restrictions, and the suffering that apartheid education wrought. For the critics in the international forum, apartheid education became a symbol of all the injustices of colonialism and racism in the Post-War world. The struggles of the students of SOWETO in 1976 became the struggles of all democrats and committed educators throughout the world. Yet the analysis of history of education under apartheid has ironically only attracted limited attention from historians and educators. This collection has drawn together twenty-five of the foremost scholars in the field in the hope that their contributions can provide the foundation for a comprehensive investigation of this topic. Greater critical insight into the legacy of apartheid education can only enhance the quality of contemporary policy development.
Contents: Peter Kallaway: Introduction – Brahm Fleisch: State Formation and the Origins of Bantu Education – Cynthia Kros: W.W.M. Eiselen: Architect of Apartheid Education – Andre Kraak: Discursive Shifts and Structural Continuities in South African Vocational Education and Training: 1981-1999 – Linda Chisholm: Continuity and Change in Education Policy Research and Borrowing in South Africa – Linda Cooper/Sally Andrew/Jonathan Grossman/Salim Vally: «Schools of Labour» and «Labour’s Schools»: Worker Education Under Apartheid – Fhulu Nekhwevha: The Influence of Paulo Freire’s «Pedagogy of Knowing» on the South African Education Struggle in the 1970s and 1980s – Teresa Barnes/Thandiwe Haya: Educational Resistance in Context: Zingisa Educational Project in the Eastern Cape: 1975 to 1993 – Seán Morrow/Brown Maaba/Loyiso Pulumani: Education in Exile: The African National Congress’s Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College (SOMAFCO) and Dakawa Development Centre in Tanzania: 1978 to 1992 – Shireen Motala/Salim Vally: People’s Education: From People’s Power to Tirisano – Alan Wieder: Informed by Apartheid: Mini-Oral Histories of Two Cape Town Teachers – Crain Soudien: Teachers‘ Responses to the Introduction of Apartheid Education – Robert Morrell/Relebohile Moletsane: Inequality and Fear: Learning and Working Inside Bantu Education Schools – Elaine Unterhalter: Gender, Race, and Different Lives: South African Women Teacher’s Autobiogaphies and the Analysis of Educational Change – Crain Soudien/Fhulu Nekhwevha: Education Post-1948: A View from Below: Education, Tradition, and Change in the Apartheid Era – Zolani Ngwane: Appartheid under Education: Schooling, Initiation, and Domestic Reproduction in Post-Apartheid Rural South Africa – Glenda Kruss: «Going Where the People Are»: The Educational Philosophy of an African Indigenous Church Institute in the 1980s – Azeem Badroodien: Race, Welfare, and «Correctional» Education: The Experience of Indigent «Coloured» Boys Under Apartheid – Paul Kihn: Comrades and Professionals: Teacher Ideology and Practice in the Western Cape, 1985 to 1990 – Jenni Karlsson: Looking at Apartheid School Spaces.