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Hard, Soft, and Smart Power – Education as a Power Resource


Aigerim Raimzhanova

In the current global context, there is a shift in power paradigm from the rigid realpolitik perspective towards the inclusion of multiple faces of power. This publication focuses on the power forms identified by Joseph Nye: hard, soft, and smart, and evaluates education as a resource of power. Resource ambiguity is one of the key shortcomings of soft power theory. Education is a smart power resource since it has both hard and soft power characteristics. The case study of Kazakhstan reveals that international educational programs allow education to become a power resource.

Power in International Relations – Issues of Soft Power – Resources of Power: Hard, Soft, and Smart – Education as a Resource of Power – Case study of Kazakhstan – Education as a Power Resource in Kazakhstan – International Education