The contributing authors in this book emphasize that in Turkey the female labor force participation rate is distinctly lower than in advanced economies despite a significant improvement in the last decade. The indicated data evoke several simple questions. Firstly, what's holding women back? What are the impediments to female labor force participation that cause the gender gap in employment? Secondly, what are the costs of lower economic participation of women for themselves, their families and the economy as a whole? We hope that identifying and assessing factors that enhance or mute labor force participation of women can open important policy insights.