Jahrbuch der Karl-Heim-Gesellschaft- 25. Jahrgang 2012
Edited By Martin Rothgangel and Ulrich Beuttler
Johannes von Lüpke: Kultur des Menschen: Überlegungen zur Geschöpflichkeit des Menschen zwischen Natur und Kultur
136 Summary Critical-material Philosophy of Neuroscience: Late Modern Physics’ Perspectives on Neuroscience Since the ancient Greeks, the mind-brain problem has been regarded as one of the major issue in natural philosophy and anthropology. Induced by the recent advancements in imaging techniques and the progress in empirical neurosciences we are experiencing a new debate on a rather old question. A new sub discipline of philosophy—labeled “neurophilo- sophy”—is emerging that claims to provide a final answer and to close the debate. Many neurophilosophers pursue a naturalist program, argu- ing that free will is nothing but an illusion of our misleading life-world perceptions. The objective of this paper is to critically contribute to this ongoing debate in cognitive science and neurophilosophy. Focusing on chaos and complexity theory (“late modern physics”), this paper argues that strong claims of naturalist neurophilosophers, e.g., the reduction of mind properties to neuronal brain activities, are neither justified nor jus- tifiable. This paper advocates from a programmatic perspective a critical- material philosophy of neuroscience that could reveal the barriers and boundaries to obtaining knowledge of and insights into such a complex system as the human brain. It is not free will, but neurophilosophical re- ductionism that is an illusion. 137 Johannes von Lüpke Kultur des Menschen: Überlegungen zur Geschöpflichkeit des Menschen zwischen Natur und Kultur 1. Geschöpf Gottes – Geschöpf des Menschen Im April 1768 schreibt Johann Gottfried Herder aus Riga an seinen älte- ren Freund und Lehrer Johann Georg Hamann in Königsberg...
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