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Trasjanka und Suržyk – gemischte weißrussisch-russische und ukrainisch-russische Rede

Sprachlicher Inzest in Weißrussland und der Ukraine?

Edited By Gerd Hentschel, Oleksandr Taranenko and Siarhej Zaprudski

Weißrussland und die Ukraine gelten als zweisprachig. Millionen von Menschen in beiden Ländern sprechen aber oft weder Weißrussisch bzw. Ukrainisch noch Russisch in Reinform. Vielmehr praktizieren sie eine gemischte weißrussisch-russische bzw. ukrainisch-russische Rede. Diese Mischungen aus genetisch eng verwandten Sprachen werden in Weißrussland Trasjanka und in der Ukraine Suržyk genannt. Der bekannte ukrainische Schriftsteller Jurij Andruchovyč hat das Phänomen in seiner Heimat als Blutschandekind des Bilingualismus angesprochen, also eine Metapher des Inzests kreiert. Darin klingt die verbreitete negative Bewertung der Sprachmischung an. Ihr ist der Band gewidmet. Er umfasst Beiträge von Autoren aus Weißrussland und der Ukraine sowie aus sieben anderen Ländern.
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An alternative interpretation of Suržyk: Dialectal and diachronic aspects

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Salvatore del Gaudio

This article intends to demonstrate that in the formation of Suržyk or more precisely prototype Suržyk other co-factors intervene that so far have often been underestimated.

The traditional interpretation of this phenomenon attributes Suržyk to the direct and exclusive result of Russian influence on Ukrainian, which caused the making of this so called hybrid or language mix. Some language elements, as well as specific constructions, can also be searched for in the historic development of the Ukrainian language or in its regional or dialectal differentiation. We are furthermore convinced that a synchronic approach to the interpretation of Suržyk will not be appropriate to render the entire complexity of this mainly oral language. The dialectal fragmentation, acting as a sort of interface between the diachronic and synchronic aspects, needs likewise to be considered.

The alternative interpretation consists in underlining the importance of the dialectal and archaic elements, so far labelled or perceived as Russianisms, or stigmatized as “Suržykisms”, but originally part of older varieties of Ukrainian, that are still present today on the Ukrainian dialectal territory. In fact, the convergence of these dialectisms and former historical Ukrainian elements has disappeared from the contemporary standard use, yet it is still present at an oral level (probably reinforced by the constant contact and formal similarity with Standard Russian) and along with other socio-cultural and psychological factors it has contributed to a creation of the relatively new sub-standard language system,...

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