This research comparatively examines the regulation of access to gas networks in Russia in the light of developments in the EU and in Germany. Competition in the gas sector requires that gas suppliers can have their gas carried over existing networks at non-discriminatory terms and conditions. Regulating access to gas networks is crucial especially where networks are owned and operated by vertically integrated undertakings. The central question of this book is to assess whether and to what extent the existing regulation of access to the gas networks of Russia contributes to the goal of creating competitive gas markets. The assessment is based on the legislation applicable in the EU and in Germany.