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Femmes sans frontières

Stratégies transnationales féminines face à la mondialisation, XVIII e -XXI e siècles

Marie-Pierre Arrizabalaga, Diana Burgos and Mercedes Yusta

L’objectif de cet ouvrage est d’explorer les multiples possibilités que l’espace transnational a offert aux femmes au cours des trois derniers siècles caractérisés par une mondialisation accélérée des échanges. Il propose un éclairage transnational aux études de genre en analysant les stratégies individuelles ou collectives des femmes, dans un monde marqué par l’interconnexion croissante d’une multitude d’acteurs et de réseaux, et où l’Etat-nation a cessé d’être le référent unique. En confrontant des études issues de disciplines différentes (histoire, sociologie, littérature, science politique), en analysant l’évolution des formes de mobilisations féminines sur une période longue et en prenant en compte le genre dans une perspective transnationale, l’ouvrage se propose de décrypter la façon dont les femmes peuvent être actrices des processus sociaux liés à la mondialisation et non uniquement les victimes. Le déploiement transnational de leurs parcours et stratégies pourrait ainsi être lu comme une forme d’ empowerment dans un monde en constante évolution.

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Première PartieStratégies transnationales de femmes migrantes

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Première partie Stratégies transnationales de femmes migrantes Scandinavian women to Amsterdam in the Dutch Golden Age: migratory strategies Sølvi SOGNER In the 1600s and well into the 1700s, the Dutch had the world’s largest commercial marine, trading not only in Europe but in Asia and the Americas as well. To run this seaborne trade, sailors were indispensable, and the Dutch demand for sailors was practically insatiable. Thousands of young Europeans, among them Scandinavians, were hired on to Dutch ships. Between long absences at sea – often of several years’ duration – they settled in Dutch port towns to be close to the maritime labour mar- ket. Parallel to this male migration, a substantial emigration of women took place. However, it is dismissive and reductionist to regard women’s migration as simply a reflection of men’s migration. These women were young, single women of the labouring classes, looking for work as well as for a husband. Recent research has presented overwhelming evidence for the fact that the normal life course pattern for young women of the labouring classes in this period – and even well into the last century – was just that: going into service for some years, then to marry, if possible (Fauve-Chamoux 2004). Sources available are scant. Often we only know the names of these «anonymous women». However, by means of the names, sources can be linked and squeezed for information. One may also wonder if the con- cept of strategy is too strong with its connotations of conscious choice,...

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