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Formation et décomposition des États en Europe au 20e siècle / Formation and Disintegration of European States in the 20th Century


Edited By Antoine Fleury, Franz Knipping, Dusan Kovác and Thomasz Schramm

Ce volume rassemble les contributions présentées par des membres de l’Association internationale d’histoire contemporaine de l’Europe au Congrès mondial des Sciences historiques à Amsterdam en 2010, d’une part sous le thème majeur du Congrès : « La chute des empires » et d’autre part dans le colloque spécifique de l’AIHCE : « La formation et la décomposition des États au 20 e siècle ». La première partie traite des origines et des conséquences de la chute des empires ottoman, allemand et italien, aussi bien sur le plan des représentations et de la mémoire historique que des transformations territoriales du continent. Dans la seconde partie, les contributeurs s’intéressent aux limitations de la souveraineté des États dans le processus d’Union européenne, à la problématique de l’État-nation au sein de l’empire austro-hongrois, et aux règlements de paix des deux après-guerres, en abordant notamment les cas polonais, hongrois, tchéco-slovaque et balte, ainsi que la fin de l’URSS.
This volume gathers together the contributions made by members of the International Association of Contemporary History of Europe during the 2010 International Congress of Historical Sciences. A major theme of the Congress was «The Fall of Empires» and many of the chapters in the book originate from the special colloquium organized by the IACHE on «The Formation and Disintegration of European States in the 20th century». The first part of the collection deals with the origins and consequences of the falls of the Ottoman, German and Italian empires, focusing on representation and historical memory, as well as analysing the subsequent territorial changes on the continent. In the second part of the book, the contributors examine the limitations of the sovereignty of the states in the European Union, the problem of the nation-state in the Austro-Hungarian empire and the two post-war peace settlements, with particular reference to the Polish, Hungarian, Czech-Slovakian and Baltic cases, and, finally, the end of the Soviet Union.


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TROISIÈME PARTIE L’EMPIRE DES HABSBOURG ET APRÈS _________ THIRD PART HABSBURG EMPIRE AND AFTER 171 Hungary A Traumatized State and Nation Attila PÓK History Institute, Budapest I continue to be troubled by the unsettling spectacle offered by an excess of memory here and an excess of forgetting elsewhere, to say nothing of the influence of commemorations and abuses of memory – and of forgetting. The idea of a policy of the just allotment of memory is one of my avowed civic themes. (Paul Ricœur, Memory, History, Forgetting, Chicago Univer- sity Press, Chicago, 2006, p. XV.) We were and are guilty and sick, and our troubles can not be repaired by a smaller incentive, only by a spiritual cleansing, an internal transformation. (Szekfű Gyula, Három nemzedék és ami utána következik, Bp., 1940, p. 6-7). * * * After defining the historical contents of the concept of “national trauma”, the paper will expose the most controversial questions in Hungarian discourses concerning the Versailles peace system. The shocking territorial and population losses of the country as defined by the Trianon peace treaty of June 4, 1920 are still the most important elements of Hungarian collective memory. The paper will address respective scholarship and political uses and abuses of this issue focus- ing on the following problems: – was the Habsburg Empire “doomed to failure”, i.e. the social and political tensions within the empire would have destroyed it sooner or later even without the Great War, or the Empire was the victim...

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