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La puissance britannique en question / Challenges to British Power Status

Diplomatie et politique étrangère au 20e siècle / Foreign Policy and Diplomacy in the 20th Century

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Edited By Claire Sanderson and Mélanie Torrent

Cet ouvrage est consacré aux transformations de la politique étrangère et de la diplomatie britanniques dans le temps long du déclin impérial, de l’intégration européenne et des relations transatlantiques. De la Royal Navy de l’amiral sir John Fisher à la politique nucléaire contemporaine, les auteurs analysent la capacité d’adaptation des pratiques internationales de la Grande-Bretagne, ses moteurs, ses limites et sa signification, à travers des cas d’étude centrés sur des archives nouvellement ouvertes ou des aires parfois marginalisées. Ils démontrent l’influence des individus, le poids des réseaux, l’évolution des processus de consultation et de prise de décision, en contexte de crise comme dans la gestion quotidienne. Considérant tour à tour les échelles locales et globales, bilatérales et multilatérales, l’ouvrage offre une perspective critique sur les pratiques culturelles et les courants intellectuels qui sous-tendent la politique étrangère et la diplomatie britanniques au 20 e siècle, de Bruxelles à Washington, du Canada au Pacifique, des Malouines à l’Afrique, des Nations Unies au Commonwealth des Nations.
This study addresses transformations in British diplomacy and foreign policy through the long-term perspectives of imperial decline, European integration and transatlantic relations. From the Royal Navy of Admiral Sir John Fisher to contemporary nuclear policy, the authors analyse Britain’s capacity to adapt its international practices, and the driving forces and constraints behind them. Using case studies based on newly available archives and including regions that tend to be marginalised, they show the influence of individuals, the importance of networks and the evolution of the consultation and decision-making processes, in contexts of both crisis and daily management. On a local, global, bilateral and multilateral scale, the book offers a critical perspective of the cultural practices and intellectual trends underlying British diplomacy and foreign policy in the 20th century, from Brussels to Washington, from the Falkland Islands to Africa, from the United Nations to the Commonwealth of Nations.

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PREMIÈRE PARTIE/PART ONE DE LA PUISSANCE GLOBALE AUX NOUVELLES RÉALITÉS RÉGIONALES / FROM GLOBAL POWER TO NEWREGIONAL REALITIES

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PREMIÈRE PARTIE DE LA PUISSANCE GLOBALE AUX NOUVELLES RÉALITÉS RÉGIONALES PART ONE FROM GLOBAL POWER TO NEW REGIONAL REALITIES 35 Global, Not European The British Navy’s Building Programme Under Admiral Sir John ‘Jacky’ Fisher Christopher MARTIN1 University of Hull When Admiral ‘Jacky’ Fisher became First Sea Lord in October 1904, he faced some very difficult issues. British naval dominance was under threat from foreign competition, and also from the fact that the British government had determined that it could no longer maintain the spiralling financial burden of naval building. In appointing Fisher to the job of First Sea Lord, the government believed it had appointed the one man in the navy with the determination and courage to meet these challenges. Fisher had a reputation of being fearless in the face of opposition: “Ruthless, Relentless and Remorseless” as he often exclaimed. Fisher embarked on a massive campaign to modernise the Royal Navy. His ideas were novel and controversial, not least in his ideas on naval building and strategy. The wartime role of the Royal Navy in the first decade of the twentieth century in wartime covered four general tasks: defence of the home islands from invasion; maintain communications with the empire; keep Britain’s trade links open and close those of the enemy; maintain communications with and support allies or British expeditionary forces overseas. How these tasks are fulfilled are matters of strategy; the ability to fulfil these tasks rests on the materiel available to the navy, which...

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