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«Protection, Prevention, Prosecution»:

Die Vereinten Nationen und der völkerrechtliche Schutz der Frauen vor sexueller Gewalt in bewaffneten Konflikten

Series:

Eliette Mirau-Gondoin

Seit Jahrhunderten dienen die Körper der Frauen als Schlachtfelder. Doch erst vor 20 Jahren kam das Thema sexuelle Gewalt in bewaffneten Konflikten auf internationaler Ebene auf. Die Autorin untersucht den Beitrag der Vereinten Nationen zur Vorbeugung und Repression von sexueller Gewalt im Krieg. Ziel war es, eine Gesamtbestandsaufnahme der ausgewählten Wege zum Schutz der Frauen vor sexueller Gewalt im Konflikt in den Bereichen «Protection, Prevention und Prosecution» durchzuführen. Dies erfolgt anhand der Auswertung der Rechtsprechung des ICTY, ICTR, SCSL und des IStGH sowie der Durchführung der UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict, der Arbeit der Human Rights Bodies und der afrikanischen Organisationen. Die Bekämpfung sexueller Gewalt im Krieg bleibt nach wie vor ein langwieriger Weg. Doch wo früher sachgerechte Normen gefehlt haben, wurden solide Grundlagen in den drei Bereichen geschaffen.

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[…] 34. Violence against women and girls is a form of discrimination prohibited by the Convention and is a violation of human rights. Conflicts exacerbate existing gender inequalities, placing women at a heightened risk of various forms of gender-based violence by both State and non-State actors. Conflict-related violence happens everywhere, such as in homes, detention facilities and camps for internally displaced women and refugees; it happens at any time, for instance, while performing daily activities such as collecting water and firewood or going to school or work. There are multiple perpetrators of conflict-related gender-based violence. These may include members of government armed forces, paramilitary groups, non-State armed groups, peacekeeping personnel and civil- ians. Irrespective of the character of the armed conflict, its duration or the actors involved, women and girls are increasingly deliberately targeted for and subjected to various forms of violence and abuse, ranging from arbitrary killings, torture and mutilation, sexual violence, forced marriage, forced prostitution and forced impregnation to forced termination of pregnancy and sterilization. 35. It is indisputable that, while all civilians are adversely affected by armed conflict, women and girls are primarily and increasingly targeted by the use of sexual violence, “including as a tactic of war to humiliate, dominate, instil fear in, disperse and/ or forcibly relocate civilian members of a community or ethnic group”, and that this form of sexual violence persists even after the cessation of hostilities.1 Es sind Verbrechen, die Frauen zugrunde richten, Familien zerstören und Gemein- schaften auseinandertreiben. Körper, Seelen...

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