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Paulo Freire

The Global Legacy


Edited By Michael A. Peters and Tina Besley

This collection is the first book devoted to Paulo Freire’s ongoing global legacy to provide an analysis of the continuing relevance and significance of Freire’s work and the impact of his global legacy. The book contains essays by some of the world’s foremost Freire scholars – McLaren, Darder, Roberts, and others – as well as chapters by scholars and activists, including the Maori scholars Graham Hingangaroa Smith and Russell Bishop, who detail their work with the indigenous people of Aotearoa-New Zealand. The book contains a foreword by Nita Freire as well as chapters from scholars around the world including Latin America, Asia, the United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia. With a challenging introduction from the editors, Michael A. Peters and Tina Besley, this much-awaited addition to the Freire archive is highly recommended reading for all students and scholars interested in Freire, global emancipatory politics, and the question of social justice in education.
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Chapter Seventeen: Re-claiming Traditional Māori Ways of Knowing, Being, and Doing, to Re-frame Our Realities and Transform Our Worlds



Re-claiming Traditional Māori Ways of Knowing, Being, and Doing, to Re-frame Our Realities and Transform Our Worlds


Titiro whakamuri, whakarite ināianei, hei hāngai whakamua



The colonisation of New Zealand by the British was predicated upon the ranking of people into higher or lower forms of human existence and “assumptions of racial, religious, cultural and technological superiority” (Walker, 1990, p. 9). This was achieved, in part, by the economic growth and expansion of a Western imperialistic notion, which used colonisation as a vehicle for achieving power and control (L. Smith, 1999, 2008) perpetuating and enforcing the image of a successful, dominant Western elite over a perceived “lesser” inferior but conforming indigenous Māori culture (Johnston & Pratt, 2003). Māori were viewed as morally, socially, culturally, and intellectually inferior to Europeans. Hokowhitu (2004) stated the racial traits accorded to Māori included being depraved, sinful, idle, dirty, immoral, and unintelligent, the antithesis of those accorded to Europeans who were viewed as righteous, upright, intellectual, honourable, and liberal. With stereotypes such as these, the Māori child became schooled in the “psychology of colonialism.” ← 261 | 262 →

This chapter briefly discusses the history of European schooling for Māori including early years education. It then explores the framings of the Māori learner, identity, and culture that resulted from...

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