Edited By Lorenz E. Baumer, Frédéric Elsig and Sabine Frommel
Sinan and Bramante: analogies and differences in the evolution of Renaissance and Ottoman religious building 143 CHRISTOPH LUITPOLD FROMMEL
143 Sinan and Bramante: analogies and differences in the evolution of Renaissance and Ottoman religious building CHRISTOPH LUITPOLD FROMMEL At ﬁrst sight the similarities of Sinan’s mosques and some 16th century pro- jects for St. Peter’s in Rome look striking, and recently the possibility of an inﬂuence in one way or the other has been stressed again1. After a more detailed analysis, however, most analogies cannot be explained with any certainty by a direct inﬂuence but seem to go back either to common late antique and Byzantine prototypes or to a parallel evolution2. Church and mosque: common roots and different functions If one tries to understand the complex relation of both, one has ﬁrst of all to remember the essential cultural and functional differences between cath- olic and Muslim religion, between church and mosque. One of their common roots was certainly the synagogue, the Jewish hall of common prayer fur- nished with a pulpit and a holy niche. While Jews as well as pagans had put the place of sacriﬁce outside of the temple, Christians erected the altar above the tomb of the martyr and made it the centre of the church, the place where mess was celebrated and bread and wine transformed in the sacriﬁced body of Christ. The priest had to be learned and ordained and from the Middle Ages onward in Western Europe also celibate. In the sacristy he was clad in 1 G. Goodwin, A history of ottoman architecture, London, 1971; W....
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