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Les années 1540 : regards croisés sur les arts et les lettres

Edited By Lorenz E. Baumer, Frédéric Elsig and Sabine Frommel

Co-édité par les unités d’archéologie classique et d’histoire de l’art, en partenariat avec l’équipe d’accueil Histara de l’Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes à Paris, le volume réunit les actes d’un colloque organisé à Genève les 11 et 12 avril 2011. Il se focalise sur l’extraordinaire vitalité des années 1540. Cette décennie de transition a vu l’émergence de phénomènes capitaux et de véritables révolutions dans l’histoire culturelle de l’Occident, dans tous les domaines : de la religion aux sciences en passant par l’architecture et les arts visuels. Son identité reste néanmoins difficile à cerner. Pour tenter d’en préciser les contours, le volume aborde les arts et les lettres sous une pluralité de perspectives, rassemblant des compétences dans différentes disciplines. Son originalité consiste précisément à articuler des approches transversales autour d’un moment crucial et d’en mesurer les conséquences à long terme. Il viendra renouveler, par ce point de vue inhabituel, les études consacrées à la Renaissance.

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Sinan and Bramante: analogies and differences in the evolution of Renaissance and Ottoman religious building 143 CHRISTOPH LUITPOLD FROMMEL

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143 Sinan and Bramante: analogies and differences in the evolution of Renaissance and Ottoman religious building CHRISTOPH LUITPOLD FROMMEL At first sight the similarities of Sinan’s mosques and some 16th century pro- jects for St. Peter’s in Rome look striking, and recently the possibility of an influence in one way or the other has been stressed again1. After a more detailed analysis, however, most analogies cannot be explained with any certainty by a direct influence but seem to go back either to common late antique and Byzantine prototypes or to a parallel evolution2. Church and mosque: common roots and different functions If one tries to understand the complex relation of both, one has first of all to remember the essential cultural and functional differences between cath- olic and Muslim religion, between church and mosque. One of their common roots was certainly the synagogue, the Jewish hall of common prayer fur- nished with a pulpit and a holy niche. While Jews as well as pagans had put the place of sacrifice outside of the temple, Christians erected the altar above the tomb of the martyr and made it the centre of the church, the place where mess was celebrated and bread and wine transformed in the sacrificed body of Christ. The priest had to be learned and ordained and from the Middle Ages onward in Western Europe also celibate. In the sacristy he was clad in 1 G. Goodwin, A history of ottoman architecture, London, 1971; W....

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