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Nouvelles perspectives sur l’anaphore

Points de vue linguistique, psycholinguistique et acquisitionnel

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Marion Fossard and Marie-José Béguelin

Longtemps limitée à une simple perspective textualiste, l’anaphore a, ces vingt dernières années, été l’enjeu de nombreux travaux influencés par les forts courants de la linguistique du discours ainsi que par les approches cognitives, pragmatiques et, plus récemment encore, interactionnelles de la référence. Phénomène discursif éminemment complexe, l’anaphore met en jeu des mécanismes informationnels, mémoriels et inférentiels variés, que de nombreux modèles, linguistiques et psycholinguistiques, ont cherché à capter.
Le propos du présent ouvrage est double : proposer un bilan épistémologique mettant au jour, parmi les modèles et approches proposés, ceux qui ont résisté au temps (et aux modes) ; pointer les aspects du phénomène anaphorique qui nécessiteraient des investigations complémentaires. En abordant l’anaphore de manière interdisciplinaire, ce livre vise aussi à décloisonner des domaines de recherche qui trop souvent s’ignorent : il rétablit le dialogue entre approches linguistiques, psycholinguistiques et acquisitionnelles, tout en faisant place aux perspectives orientées vers la logopédie et le TAL (Traitement Automatique du Langage).
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Indexicals and context: Context-bound pre-requisite(s), ongoing processing and aftermaths of the discourse referring act: Francis Cornish

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In this chapter, I would like to review the fundamentals (as rugby commentators often say), which often seem to be “taken as read” or even ignored in much work on indexical reference: the question of the nature of the various basic types of indexical referring procedures (here, pure deixis, “anadeixis” and discourse anaphora), and their realization via tokens of the different types of indexical expressions (demonstratives, definite NPs, 3rd person pronouns, and so on) – and in particular, their sensitivity and contribution to the context prevailing at the point of use. More specifically, the context which each type of referring procedure assumes and how each of them modifies that context subsequent to the point of use.

There are two main aspects to this question: first, the particular bundle of discourse-referential properties which characterizes each type of indexical expression1: as a function of its distinctive array of semantic-pragmatic properties, the use of a token of each of these expression types, in conjunction with its host predication, presupposes a distinct kind of discourse context, and in turn, creates a particular kind of context for the ensuing discourse; and second, a characterisation of the more general notion of discourse context, over and above the use of any given type of indexical. We will see that it is not in fact simply the use of a token of a ← 1 | 2 → given indexical expression type per se that presupposes one or other type of prior context and that serves to shift that context...

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