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Beiträge zum Islamischen Recht XII

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Edited By Silvia Tellenbach and Thoralf Hanstein

Der von der «Gesellschaft für Arabisches und Islamisches Recht» (GAIR) veröffentlichte Band ging aus der Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft im Oktober 2016 in Freiburg am Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht hervor. Die Vorträge liegen nun ergänzt um zwei weitere, themenrelevante Beiträge publiziert vor. Die Artikel beschäftigen sich schwerpunktmäßig mit dem islamischen Strafrecht im Iran und in Pakistan, vor allem mit Bezug zum Religionsstrafrecht (Lästerung und Schmähung von als geheiligt geltenden Personen oder Gegenständen) und Sexualstrafrecht (Ehebruch, Homosexualität und Vergewaltigung). Hinzu kommen Untersuchungen zu Strafzwecken im schiʻitischen Strafrecht, zur Auslegung der Scharia im Islamischen Staat (IS) und zur Iranischen Rechtsanwaltskammer.

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Rule of Law or Rule by Law? Iran’s Bar Association as a pawn in Islamic-republican contestations (Mirjam Künkler)

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Rule of Law or Rule by Law? Iran’s Bar Associationas a pawn in Islamic-republican contestations

Mirjam Künkler, Uppsala

Introduction

The institution of the bar association and its independence from the judicial branch of power is a key pillar of any rule of law state. Bar associations design and conduct the licensing examinations for future lawyers, and their boards are usually instrumental in screening prospective parliamentary legislation for its compatibility with the constitution and the rule of law. The independence of judges and their professional integrity hinges on training and licensing programs that are shielded from political interference and instrumentalization. Independent bar associations that oversee the training and certification of future lawyers and judges are therefore indispensable to guaranteeing the rule of law. Conversely, where political elites have the power to interfere with the certification of lawyers and inject political considerations into the decision-making process of who can and who cannot join the bar, the legal profession is at risk of becoming subservient to political power and, ultimately, at becoming a tool of authoritarian rule.

The development of the Bar Association of Iran (Kānūn-i Vūkalā-yi Dādgūstarī) is intricately bound up with the development of a modern legal system in the course of the 20th century. It is one of the most important achievements of the constitutional revolution in 1906/1907, often credited with signifying and further instilling in 20th century Iran the strong belief in constitutionalism and...

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