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Tanielian and Jaycox, “Invisible Wounds of War”; Yonkman and Bridgeland, “All Volunteer Force.” To provide a brief transatlantic contextualization, the German Bundeswehr has much less prominence in the public, owing to critical perspectives on the role of the military in World War II and the Holocaust. Public memory about these historical events still generates wary public discussions on the relationship between the military and civil society. However, German participation in the Afghanistan campaign has raised public awareness of veterans’ mental health and

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hardened profes- sional, old beyond his or her actual age.”24 As psychologists John P. Wilson and Steven M. Silver argue, warriors thus gain a “new perspective on self and the world” that the home community must help interpret and put into context.25 The Native veterans’ communities often acknowledge this maturation and contextu- alization by granting them heightened social status and trusting them to employ their experience in new positions within the tribal social structure. War experience poses a danger to both its bearers and to the communities to which they

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: New Perspectives on Narrative Analysis, edited by David Herman, 218–46. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1999. Herman, Judith Lewis. Trauma and Recovery. The Aftermath of Violence From Domestic Abuse to Political Terror. New York: Basic, 1992. Herrmann, Sebastian M. “‘To Tell a Story to the American People’: Reading the Surge of ‘Narrative’ in Contemporary Discussions of US Elections as ‘Popular Narratology.’” In Electoral Cultures: American Democracy and Choice, edited by Georgiana Banita and Sascha Pöhlmann, 323–39. Heidelberg: Winter, 2015. Herwig, Jana. “Die

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element of per- formance, however. Bruce Kapferer calls for ritual studies to move beyond this “the- atrical metaphor” in order to “reconceive ritual performance as a dynamic field of force in whose virtual space human psychological, cognitive, and social realities are forged anew, so that ritual participants are both reoriented to their ordinary realities and embodied with potencies to restore or reconstruct their lived world.”19 Kapferer’s reservation manifests his concern that, from a perspective on ritual emphasizing interpretation and reflexivity, “everything

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among the virtual communities of the blogosphere where they occur in less institutionalized form. A number of post-deployment blogs explicitly discuss PTSD issues. I argue that, by writing about both their war experience and their experience with trauma and its effects, these bloggers perform a working-through of their own trauma, once more, both directly and on the meta-level. In addition, they often develop a sense of purpose and mission through writing. Scott Lee, founder of the blog PTSD: A Soldier’s Perspective, states that he initially started blogging in

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process of accumulation and recognition, it may acquire a stronger status with a specific differential function, analogous to that of a symbolic artistic cachet or cultural capital, to use the term coined in the social theories of Pierre Bourdieu.4 The notion of the Russian myth here constitutes the focal point of our discussion. As explained in the Introduction, it is viewed in the light of the constructivist perspective offered by contemporary theories of representation – the science of ‘imagology’ or image studies.5 There is a 4 Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction

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unwillingness to change things. Terrified by interaction with the outside world and by the liveliness of Istanbul, the guests of Café Kundera find refuge in the café and in their inconclusive conversations. Café Constantinopolis is an online chat room that offers a virtual platform for the American descendents of former Ottoman minorities to reunite, discuss their common roots, and fantasize about an imaginary afterlife of the Ottoman Empire where Turks are discriminated or denied entrance. Café Constantinopo- lis presents the U.S. as the ideal place for diasporic

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despite a globalized and seemingly shrinking world. The border is multiple: “A border is […] much more than a protection wall behind which one hides or takes refuge. It is also a threshold […]” ← 39 | 40 → (van Houtum, “Mask” 59). Therefore, the border must be understood as a “Janus face” (van Houtum, “Mask” 59) signifying beginning and end symbolized by the Roman god Janus. The “sphere of trust” within the border is simultaneously constitutive of the ostensible “fear for what is out there, beyond the self-defined border” (59). The dualism represented by the Janus

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Book in John Foxe’s Actes and Monuments . Eds Thomas Page Anderson and Ryan Netzley. Newark, 2010, 11–28. Armstrong, Chris. “Books in a Virtual World: The Evolution of the E-book and its Lexicon.” Journal of Librarianship and Information Science , 40 (2008), 193–206. Assmann, Aleida. Einführung in die Kulturwissenschaft: Grundbegriffe, Themen, Fragestellungen . 2nd ed., Berlin, 2008. Assmann, Aleida. “The Shaping of Attention by Cultural Frames and Media Technology.” ImageScapes: Studies in Intermediality . Eds Christian J. Emden and Gabriele Rippl. Bern

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explained in the Introduction , it is viewed in the light of the constructivist perspective offered by contemporary theories of representation – the science of ‘imagology’ or image studies. 5 There is a ← 18 | 19 → distinctive emphasis on the input of pragmatics in the modern imagological approach, which increasingly sees the dynamics of cultural representation in terms of its audience function. Based on the awareness that the cultural sources used in this domain of scholarly research are not merely a record of representation, but rather an artefact of a certain