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Chapter 14 ← 194 | 195 → CHAPTER FOURTEEN The Rise of Urban Fiction KRISTINA GRAAFF AND VANESSA IRVIN STREET LITERATURE’S HISTORICAL SPACES Urban fiction, also known as street lit, is a contemporary literary genre that focuses on the city experiences of 21st-century African Americans and Latinos. The current iteration of urban fiction, however, has roots in the literary traditions of yesteryear, stemming as far back as the 16th and 17th centuries. In fact, the original street literature publications were in the form of large, poster-sized printouts called

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conceptualization of Black films. On one hand, there is the effort of Black creatives to create opportunities for Black actors, writers, and directors, as well as to give voice to some aspect of the Black cultural experience. On another hand, Black creatives do not want to be defined or limited by race, contending that their films must be universal narratives featuring African Americans (Cole, 2013). In other words, although Black-context films do achieve box-office success, Black filmmakers are strategically including White characters into their films in order to broaden their

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place than it often is in life,” as the New York Times writer Caryn James put it. 56 By contrast, Dominicans, like African Americans have historically endowed beauty-culture workers with social status and professional standing incommensurate with their educational attainment or class backgrounds. This is likely due to the fact that beauty shops have provided women of color with entrepreneurial employment and social opportunities that are not otherwise offered by dominant ← 275 | 276 → white society. In traditionally African American neighborhoods such as Harlem

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noted by political anthropologist Andrea Cornwall, closer attention has been given to “the imbrication of gender identities with other dimensions of difference, and to men’s, as well as women’s, gendered experiences.” 84 ←35 |  36→ Andrea Cornwall further suggests that “early writing on gender in Africa was largely about women and by women,” 85 with primary interests in economic issues and the position of women in society. Furthermore, Nancy Rose Hunt posits a chronological framework whereby this first phase, located primarily in the early 1970s, would be

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Welfare Mother. These images provide the public with a distorted and prob ← 42 | 43 → lematic view of Black female identity. In their work Stephens and Phillips present these four images as the foundation for contemporary African American female sexual scripts that are often reflected in hip-hop media as Freak, Golddigger, Diva, Dyke, Gangster Bitch, Sister Savior, Earth Mother, and Baby Mama. Such depictions of Black women are not above suspicion. These images represent Black women as less than human and “useful commodities in a very serious power struggle” (Bobo, p

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behaviors, and (c) racism benefits the superior group while negatively affecting the other racial and/or ethnic groups” (Solórzano & Yosso, 2009, p. 132). (2) Systematic Racism: “Refers to the European American oppression of African Americans since the 1600s … (Feagin, 2006, p. xiii) … Encompasses a broad range of white-racist dimensions: the racist ideology, attitudes, emotions, habits, actions, and institutions of whites in this society. Thus, systematic racism is far more than a matter of racial prejudice and individual bigotry. It is a material, social, and

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Glorious Outlaws: Debt as a Tool in Contemporary Postcolonial Fiction | 279 → Works Cited Abdel-Shafi, Sami. “Gaza Needs the World’s Help.” Guardian 31 July 2014. Web. 31 July 2014. Achebe, Chinua. “An Image of Africa.” Research in African Literatures 9.1 (1978): 1–15. JSTOR . Web. 4 Apr. 2010. –. “English and the African Writer.” Transition . The Anniversary Issue: Selection from Transition 1961–1976 75/76 (1997): 342–439. Web. 20 Apr. 2012. –. There Was a Country: A Personal History of Biafra . New York: Penguin, 2012. Kindle file. Web. 24 Dec. 2014

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few years I lived in Memphis, immersed in a radically different world from the one I had known as an academic. In varying configurations of allied groups, I involved myself in community organizing, advising people on labor rights, fighting for racial justice, and protesting what we called police brutality. We founded a community bookstore, worked to get progressive candidates elected and Richard Nixon impeached. And we had successes. For a while, the Memphis Community Bookstore thrived; Minerva Johnican became one of the first African-American women elected to

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issues relating to Morocco, North Africa and the Middle East […].    An honored novelist and a respected intellectual, Jelloun is a humanist and a man of dialogue, urging understanding and fraternity between people. 8 Bernard R. Périsse portrays Ben Jelloun in a similar light in his 2003 comparative thematic study of Nabokov’s American Works and Ben Jelloun’s novels. After stating that Nabokov was against the treatment of social themes in literature, Périssé quotes from Ben Jelloun’s interview with Thomas Spear in which he described his writerly duty: ‘to be a

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the historical center of a powerful empire and can be linked to what the Canadian writer Margaret Atwood wrote about Canada of the sixties and seventies in her book, Survival . In this book, the Canadian identity was perceived as weak as a result of the British colonization and the impact of the American cultural and economic influence. However, Robert Fulford reminds us that geography unites Canadians who are conscious, nevertheless, that they live in different worlds in which their ideas and even their rights are separate. It is true for Indigenous people as well