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156 24. Elvis Mitchell, “’Body Rock’ Is Gaudy Schlock,” Los Angeles Herald Examiner, October 12, 1982, MHL/MPA. 25. Melvin Donalson, Black Directors in Hollywood (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003), 41. 26. Arnold Shaw, Black Popular Music in America (New York: Schirmer Books, 1986), 292– 293. 27. David Samuels, “The Rap on Rap,” in That’s the Joint: The Hip Hop Reader, edited by Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal (New York: Routledge, 2004), 148. 28. Ibid., 273. 29. Nelson George, Buppies, B-Boys, Baps, and Bohos: Notes on Post-Soul Black Culture

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: Broadway and Beyond,” Dance Magazine , August 1984, MHL/MPA. 23.    Ibid. ← 155 | 156 → 24.    Elvis Mitchell, “’Body Rock’ Is Gaudy Schlock,” Los Angeles Herald Examiner , October 12, 1982, MHL/MPA. 25.    Melvin Donalson, Black Directors in Hollywood (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003), 41. 26.    Arnold Shaw, Black Popular Music in America (New York: Schirmer Books, 1986), 292–293. 27.    David Samuels, “The Rap on Rap,” in That’s the Joint: The Hip Hop Reader , edited by Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal (New York: Routledge, 2004), 148. 28.    Ibid

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1 Representin’ in the Beginnin’: The 1980s In Breakin’ (1984), the energetic Turbo (Michael “Boogaloo Shrimp” Chambers) represents hip-hop creativity as he flashes his dynamic break dancing skills. More than any other medium, Hollywood movies introduced mainstream America to hip-hop culture in the 1980s. In particular, Hollywood seized upon the visual and aural dynamics of three expressions of the youth culture to showcase: graffiti writing, break dancing, and rapping. The presentation of hip-hop culture was not based upon an altruistic

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Hip Hop in American Cinema 1 Representin’ in the Beginnin’: The 1980s In Breakin’ (1984), the energetic Turbo (Michael “Boogaloo Shrimp” Chambers) represents hip-hop creativity as he flashes his dynamic break dancing skills. More than any other medium, Hollywood movies introduced mainstream America to hip-hop culture in the 1980s. In particular, Hollywood seized upon the visual and aural dynamics of three expressions of the youth culture to showcase: graffiti writing, break dancing, and rapping. The presentation of hip-hop culture was not based upon an

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significance. Each of Lee’s previous productions had been financially successful, generating profits for the studios and distribution companies that financed them. Lee was consequently able to demand higher budgets for each successive film, peaking with $14 million for Jungle Fever in 1991 (Lee and Wiley, 1992). Through the success of his earlier films, and his increasing presence within the American advertising industry and media scene, Lee had established name recognition. Each new Spike Lee “joint,” as he calls his films, was an awaited event both for the Hollywood

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The Mediated Youth Reader | 217 → CHAPTER 12 The Girl Gaze Indies, Hollywood, and the Celluloid Ceiling Kathleen Sweeney T he changes in depictions of mother-daughter relationships on film, as well as revisionist ideas about Single Moms, Teen Moms, and Girl Heroines, have been influenced by the increased role of women behind the scenes in the film and publishing industries, as well as the prodigious output of women’s rite-of-passage novels and memoirs entering the millennial idea stream for screenplay adaptation. While the changes in the power structure of

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subvert postcolonial readings, while simultaneously constructing images of specific postcolonies. In this introduction, we foreground the theoretical readings that follow by focusing on pedagogical strategies for teaching such films—in conjunction with various works of postcolonial and canonical literature and film, as well as with the aid of historical and theoretical grounding. One of the reasons why we have chosen “intercultural” as our method- ology is because the chapters herein reveal the role of American film and culture in the films we analyze—Hollywood

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C This investigation of representations of exile, the exilic experience and exilic bod- ies in Hollywood cinema was originally born out of a dissatisfaction with Hamid Naficy’s An Accented Cinema (). I had a suspicion that Naficy might not be quite right in dismissing representations of exile prior to the late s (: ). It seemed somewhat cavalier to ignore exilic filmmakers who were displaced prior to the s and to claim that ‘the first group was displaced or lured to the West from the late s to the mid-s by Third World decolonization

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, the Other, the incarnation of danger and the antithesis to Europe’s mystified woman. This historical imagery still inspires political action as noted in the Sotomayor case, and provides meaning to cultural phenomena such as film production and media coverage. The storytelling principles about male-female relationships observed in Hollywood productions reflect these long-held assumptions about women’s place in society. In romantic narratives, the obstacles to women happiness are the old motifs of the lost woman, the lost love, illicit sex, forbidden unions

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→ cinema, inaugurating himself as a major in the industry. Shortly after Lee’s debut, others like Robert Townsend and Keenen Ivory Wayans followed. For instance, with his $100,000 movie bank rolled through his personal credit line, Robert Townsend’s satirical Hollywood Shuffle (1987) raised consciousness about the narrowly defined ways actors as late as the 1980s could only sustain a living by participating in contrived imagery that intimated black inferiority and aberrance. Shuffle ’s tragic/comic walk through American film history embodies a critique, film historian