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’. ‘Negritude’ was the key-word used by anti-colonial writers as an intellectual discourse which seeks to understand and preserve African history, culture and spirituality. Black African identity was defined, portrayed and stigmatized by colonialism, under which black people, in particular slaves and women, lived ‘under tyranny, injustice, ignorance and poverty’ 52 as well as being excluded from ‘the polis’ 53 for the reason that the criteria of classification divided the ‘human races’ into two categories: ← 135 | 136 → inferior and savage, superior and civilized, and

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oppressions that African Americans have experienced in this country (Dillard, 2000, 2008a, 2008b). Dillard (2000) introduces a new theoretical framework, called an endarkened feminist epistemology, to counter the hegemonic dominant research paradigms of White Europeans. Simply put, an endarkened feminist epistemology, rooted in Black feminism, is a way of honoring the historical and cultural contributions of African American women at the intersection of the construction of race/class/gender (Dillard, 2000). In this chapter, I will use the works of feminist writers such as

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’, Journal of African Cultural Studies , 18 (Number 1, June 2006). Bayne, E. A. (1965), Four ways of politics: state and nation in Italy, Somalia, Israel, Iran (New York: American Universities Field Staff). ← 299 | 300 → Ben-Ghait Ruth and Fuller, Mia (ed.), (2005), Italian Colonialism , (New York: Palgrave Macmillan). Besteman, Catherine L.; Cassanelli, L. (1996), The struggle for land in southern Somalia: the war behind the war (Boulder, Colo; London: Westview Press & HAAN). Besteman, Catherine Lowe (1996), ‘Representing Violence and "Othering" Somalia’, Cultural

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. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� on Language and Identity. London: SAGE, 2001. Barrett, Deirdre, ed. Trauma and Dreams. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001. 262 Bibliography Barthes, Roland. “Der Tod des Autors.” Texte zur Theorie der Autorschaft. Ed. Fotis Jannidis et al. Stuttgart: Reclam, 2000. 185-198. Bast, Heike. “The Ghosts of Africville, Acadia and the African Continuum. (Re)claiming Ethnic Identity in Africadian Literature.” Zeitschrift für Kanada-Studien 43 (2003): 129-142. Beaulieu, Elizabeth Ann. Black Women Writers and the American Neo-slave Narrative: Femininity

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its norms and values on the minority group, who are derided ← 151 | 152 → because of their skin color and because of an inherited European view of Africans as barbaric, heathen and inferior.” 1 “You belong where White people put you.” 2 This bitter statement by James Baldwin, an African-American writer and literary critic, expresses an essential formulation of the current place of Blacks in mainstream American cinema, which has resulted in the continuation of racial prejudice and deeper divisions in American society. Hollywood mainstream cinema plays a key role

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(2000): 159–82. ←189 |  190→ —. Secretary of the Invisible: The Idea of Hospitality in the Fiction of J. M. Coetzee . Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2009. Mcmahan, Jeff. “Torture and Collective Shame.” In J. M. Coetzee and Ethics , edited by Anton Leist and Peter Singer, 89–105. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. Meihuizen, N. C. T. “Beckett and Coetzee: Alternative Identities.” Literator 32, no. 1 (2011): 1–19. Meskell, Lynn, and Lindsay Weiss. “Coetzee on South Africa’s Past: Remembering in the Time of Forgetting.” American Anthropologist 108

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, where anything can happen […] where the elements of culture and society are released from their customary configurations and recombined.”642 This is, asserts Houston Baker, due to the “inversive nature” of orality-oriented myth itself: Within [it] lies a limitless, liminal freedom wherein the critic of African-American litera- ture can move betwixt and between Western critical methodologies […] [T]he history in the African-American text is merely a reflective one that mirrors the Westernized version of history […] [M]ythologies in black women writers’ texts are

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. Individual administrative ← 164 | 165 → (Bruel, Lefèvre), political (Diagne) and cultural (Montesquieu, Verlaine, Gide, Moran) figures are specifically addressed within the context of a more general dialogue with France’s writers, poets, politicians, colonial administrators and readers everywhere. All become de facto participants in the performance. Incorporation of its audience through call-and-response posts the Preface’s – and the work’s – black attitude textually. It invites comparison with the famous oratorical performance of African-American, Sojourner Truth – Ain

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Notes on contributors Raffaella Baccolini teaches Gender Studies and American Literature at the Uni- versity of Bologna, Forlì. She has published several articles on dystopia and science fiction, trauma literature, women’s writing, memory, and modernist literature. She is the author of Tradition, Identity, Desire: Revisionist Strategies in H. D.’s Late Poetry (Patron, 1995) and has edited several volumes, among which are Dark Horizons: Science Fiction and the Dystopian Imagination (with T. Moylan, Routledge, 2003), Le prospettive di genere: discipline

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postcolonial fiction and African society; on the feminist and novelist Olive Schreiner; on aspects and moments of South African cultural history. She has also been working on gender and women’s studies and has observed the emergence of new, creolised expressions in the West (Black Britain, postcolonial Italy) and elsewhere. From 1987 to 1995, she edited a series of African and Caribbean fiction in Italian and later acted as a consultant for Italian publishers. In recent years, she has researched and published on the new Italian literature produced by writers of African