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questions also relate to broader discussions of contemporary trends such as globalization and multiculturalism. The following provides an overview of the key characteristics of and contemporary issues surrounding contemporary discussions of blending and/or integrating Indigenous and Western knowledge and philosophies of Nature. Perspectives and theories from Indigenous and non-Indigenous scholars in North America and around the world are explored and supported with illustrative examples of contemporary practice. Transcultural Perspectives on Intercultural Engagement

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the rise in popularity of mental pilgrimage encouraged the creation of new images, plans and cityscapes of Jerusalem, often adapted from the real life layout, for the easier comprehension of the virtual rather than the real traveller. 28 ← 10 | 11 → One of the best-known – and best-studied – examples is by the Benedictine monk of St Albans, Matthew Paris. In around 1250, Paris produced a set of maps to accompany his history of the world, Chronica Majora , which allowed the reader to make a visit to Jerusalem. The destined audience was not physical pilgrims but

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be discussed first, followed by the complementary rational-choice perspective. 3.1.1 The constructivist perspective There is definitely much that is real about the world, about the environment, about nature itself. Human perception, in contrast, is very restricted and it is only possible to snatch a small excerpt from reality. In our everyday awareness, many things remain undetected, either because they lie out of sight, for instance, behind a mountain or behind us, or they are unperceivable by merely using our senses. No one is able to see an atom with their bare

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University Press, 2012), 381–93. Rudy, Kathryn M., Virtual Pilgrimages in the Convent. Imagining Jerusalem in the Late Middle Ages (Turnhout: Brepols, 2011). Rudy, Kathryn M., ‘Virtual Pilgrimage through the Jerusalem Cityscape’, in Bianca Kühnel, Galit Noga-Banai and Hanna Vorholt, eds, Visual Constructs of Jerusa- lem (Turnhout: Brepols, 2015), 381–93. Sánchez y Sánchez, Samuel and Annie Hesp, eds, The Camino de Santiago in the 21st Cen- tury. Interdisciplinary Perspectives and Global Views (London: Routledge, 2015). Shalev, Zur, Sacred Words and Worlds. Geography

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: Telementoring with Hands-On Augmented Reality Instruction.” In Workshop Proceedings of the 11 th International Conference on Intelligent Environments edited by Davy Preuveneers, 236–243. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Schiller, Shu Z., Brian E. Mennecke, Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, and Andy Luse. 2014. “Institutional Boundaries and Trust of Virtual Teams in Collaborative Design: An Experimental Study in a Virtual World Environment”. Computers in Human Behavior 35: 565–577. Shirky, Clay. 2010. Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age . New York: Penguin

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Alternative Spaces/Transformative Places: Democratizing Unruliness in an Age of Austerity ·7· Diffused Intertextual Production As demonstrated in the previous chapters, spaces in contemporary society are often made unruly because of the degradations that occur in the physical environment. The second part of this book provided detailed descriptions of the creation, or acceleration, of such degradation and unruliness of spaces in cities like Flint from austerity that stem from resentment and neoliberalism. However, we have found over the years that citizens

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Transnational Polish Families in Norway Eugene Guribye, Paula Pustułka, Magdalena Ślusarczyk & Barbara Zyzak Left to their own devices? On the role of Polish migrant organisations in Norway Abstract: This chapter examines the role of Polish organisations in the social lives of Polish families in Norway by employing a critical perspective that acknowledges the importance of state involvement in relation to social capital. Discrepancies between Norway and Poland in relation to trust and civic participation as central facets of social capital are analysed in

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Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and Western science? These kinds of questions also relate to broader discus- sions of contemporary trends such as globalization and multiculturalism. The following provides an overview of the key characteristics of and con- temporary issues surrounding contemporary discussions of blending and/or integrating Indigenous and Western knowledge and philosophies of Nature. Perspectives and theories from Indigenous and non-Indigenous scholars in North America and around the world are explored and supported with illus- trative examples of

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). From this perspective, each new social relationship and connection opens up a new universe—a new reality based on specific information—and is part of how we relate to the world. Moreover, each experienced social relationship features its own rules and may result from a distinct body of information peculiar to each interactant, including his individual history, contingencies, and behavioral routines. As suggested in Chapter 2 , this actor-specificity seems essential in any exploration of trust and the experience of social relationships. Fig. 3.2 The social

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necessarily the case. Therefore, Putnam argues, the focus should be on ← 276 | 277 → the purposes and effects of social capital: “networks and norms might, for example, benefit those who belong – to the detriment of those who do not” (2002: 7). According to Putnam, the key components of social capital are trust, norms and networks (2012). In particular he considers social capital to be social networks and the norms of reciprocity associated with them. This is not a new phenomenon; Hanifan, according to Putnam (2002: 4-5), coined the term ‘social capital’ at the turn of