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’s vision of medieval art well into the 20th century (Figure 25). And this is neither good nor bad; rather, it is simply a fact that should be noted in history. The consequences of these interventions often lead art historians, especially with the 19th  century interventions, to study a medieval monument as if it were truly medieval, when in fact it is modern or contemporary. Each monument has its own history and most recent interventions, just as those by the architect Antoni González Moreno-Navarro in Sant Quirze de Pedret or in Sant Llorenç near Bagà are

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, Cornwall is described as “a desolate region, where witches and warlocks were reported to have the mastery” (2010: 6), with Ackroyd every now and again ‘decorating’ Malory’s prose with details of his own invention. Another consequence of these textual interventions is shifting the medieval text, still steeped in the oral conventions of story-telling, more towards the poetics of the novel. Whereas the medieval author has left many things for the audience to interpret and concretize, Ackroyd the novelist cannot resist filling in the bare skeleton of Malory’s sentences and

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centuries is necessary in order to clarify the restorations made by the architects of the 19 th and 20 th centuries. For this reason, the Islamic building has first been minutely analysed. The aim was not to provide a compilation and history of its building technique, nor to document every single step in the process of restoration during the past two centuries. Rather, the approach was to critically discuss the conservation of medieval buildings, in this case Islamic, and its inherent problems, by singling out the most important techniques and most significant measures

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interpretation against the background of the earliest sources: maghāzī, sīra, shamā’il, futū ḥ , ṭ abaqāt, ta’rīkh , and others, including, of course, Islam’s scripture, the Qur’ān. This study focused on the first two decades of the Islamic umma . Medieval Muslim authors narrated the events of this period, including the raids and conquests, and aimed to emphasize the work of Allah to inspire and support his prophet Muhammad, and his successors. Centuries after the events, these authors sought to represent what took place from the winner’s perspective. They created a

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hierarchy: Jesus, the Holy Cross, Mary, tellingly called Our Lady, Archangel Gabriel, and three saints – George, Catherine, and Christopher. Evidently, saints are active in the medieval tradition and capable of effective intervention in mundane affairs. In accordance with the Catholic doctrine of the communion of saints, the saints are there to help the living and to be communicated with. The speaker, presumably representing the collective voice of the English people, turns directly to Talbot, marking him as a personage of this world by the use of the plural “you

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Esther Martí Sentañes CNR – Istituto di Storia dell’Europa Mediterranea Oligarchies, urban government and royal cities in late medieval Sardinia: elements for the construction of an identity 1. Introduction1 Since the arrival of the troops of the Crown of Aragon in Sardinia in 1323 and thanks to the definitive settlement of numerous Aragonese compo- nents, whether military, merchants, craftsmen in the Sardinian land, an increasingly notable group of Iberian origin is created, who will have a prominent role in the government of the Kingdom2. The role

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Chapter 5 ← 56 | 57 → E STHER M ARTÍ S ENTAÑES CNR – Istituto di Storia dell’Europa Mediterranea Oligarchies, urban government and royal cities in late medieval Sardinia: elements for the construction of an identity 1.  Introduction 1 Since the arrival of the troops of the Crown of Aragon in Sardinia in 1323 and thanks to the definitive settlement of numerous Aragonese components, whether military, merchants, craftsmen in the Sardinian land, an increasingly notable group of Iberian origin is created, who will have a prominent role in the government of the

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and in the first few centuries 731 Sheehan, “English Wills and the Records of the Ecclesiastical and Civil Jurisdictions,” Journal of Medieval History, 14 (1988), p. 5. 732 Cavanaugh, “A Study of Books Privately Owned in England 1300-1450,” p. 10. This can be further supported with evidence from some of the testaments, which specifically request for such interventions on behalf of the deceased, as for example in the case of John de Lydeford discussed in section 5.2 (Cavanaugh, “A Study of Books

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to medieval Italy. As early as 1340, Italian mer- chants’ books talk about the “true and honest merchant”. In Germany, the rise of the Hanse is inseparably linked with the image of the Honour- able Merchant. The loose league of towns that was the Hanse could only achieve the magnitude that determined history through mutual tolerance and virtuous behaviour of its members. In this sense, the GPHM de- scribes a life philosophy whose realisation lets businessmen become ma- ture, responsible and above all economically successful personalities. For the Honourable

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Hybrid Identities ← 54 | 55 → Hybrid Identities: the case of Medieval Spain Adeline R UCQUOI Centre de Recherches Historiques – École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales Historians are the product of their time, and great historical topics are closely linked to the contexts in which they are created. These include both personal experiences and the social, political and cultural contexts in which historical works are elaborated. 1 Identity is one of the issues that have recently emerged in the field of medieval history. What is identity? The Webster