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right of entry to the West. Masculinity in Westerns is identified as the only source of stabil- ity in a frontier world where the clash of savagery and civilization threatens cultural and social order. What defines masculinity is not physique, good looks, strength, or aggressiveness, but the ability to be tough.34 McCourt’s favouring of Hollywood’s authoritative figures to real Irish ‘pompous priests’ and ‘bullying schoolmasters’ anticipates issues raised by the Ferns Inquiry (2005) and the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse, 32 Personal email from McCourt

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Alexa Weik von Mossner Roland Emmerich’s The Day After Tomorrow (2004) Much as it was criticized at the time of its release in 2004, Roland Emmerich’s The Day After Tomorrow1 holds a special status within the emerging genre of cli-fi cinema. Despite its many scientific inaccuracies, the movie stands out as the first Hollywood mega-blockbuster that self-consciously was about climate change rather than just using a climatically changed environment as narrative setting and background. Other climate-themed films such as Bong Joon-ho’s Snowpiercer2 and George

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he and two university friends started as a moonlight- ing venture.41 Here, Macdonald expressed his independence and honed his criti- cal faculties away from the omnipresent gaze of Luce’s chief editors in four es- says on T. S. Eliot, Robinson Jeffers, and American and Soviet cinema. A fifth on Hollywood directors, written for the arts journal Symposium, caps off Mac- donald’s early period. Taken jointly, the articles provide a window into the emergence of themes that would reverberate through Macdonald’s writings on culture in the succeeding decades. Macdonald

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. Owing to their sufferings, struggles and hardships, both Stahr and the Fonsteins are ennobled by the two narrators. Here also lies a very prominent similarity between the two novels. Both novelists employ first-person narrators, who function as ambivalent audiences of the “performances,” and the rhetoric, of the characters. Because she is a member of the Hollywood community, the social and moral world she has been raised to admire, Cecilia, Fitzgerald’s narrator, is initially fascinated by their conduct and behavior. On the other hand, Bellow’s unnamed narrator starts

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classes to them with the hope of training teach- ers who would stay on the reservation. This is a significant detail of the story. I saw several people I knew in the class, so as the students were filing into the cafeteria in preparation, I spoke with a few and then went to the front of the room to begin class. Before I could utter a word, though, one woman raised her hand. It was Jean. She and one of her daughters had been in a creative writing course I had taught the previous year on the reservation. She had a question: “What’s a white guy (although she used the

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almost drowns in his own bathtub but Frank is ironically forced to save Nick in order to avoid an inquiry: "He was laying there in the water, but his head wasn't under. I tried to lift him. I had a hell of a time. He was slippery with the soap, and I had to stand in the water before I could raise him at all" (TPART 16). Because the land of Cain's novel is one of lust rather than love, water can also to be replaced with alcohol in certain contexts. Cora confesses to Frank: "'I can't stand it. And I've got to get drunk with you, Frank. You know what I mean

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daring centerfold of Burt Reynolds (with his penis hidden between his hands), while in 1977 John Travolta appeared in briefs as Tony Manero in Saturday Night Fever, which was followed by the “musculinity” fever of the 1980s Hollywood industry,5 and Calvin Klein’s campaigns with beautiful, young, muscular underwear models in the early 1990s. In line with this increased social visibility, there has since the 1970s been as well a growing number of studies on the body, in general, and male bodies, in particular.6 This has contributed not only to exploring the

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very purposeful at this point: “not as the imposition of texts upon passive people who constitute a kind of tabula rasa, but as a process of interaction between complex texts which harbor more than monolithic meanings and audiences” (304; cf. Fiske 23). In general, Hollywood has educated our audiovisual understanding by means of a commercial aesthetic—a code that is repeated incessantly resulting in the alienation of the viewer from other national cinemas, including our own. Obviously the aesthetic code and the politico- economic rationale that constructs

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hitherto unremarkable first-term senator from Wisconsin, began his infamous anti-communist crusade when he claimed to “hold in [his] hand” a list of 105 “known communists” working in the State De- partment. The first of several public exploits by the senator, McCar- thy’s allegations – together with the passing in the same year of the McCarran Act, which mandated tighter government control over communist organizations – raised the stakes of the Cold War inside the U.S., by creating an atmosphere of internal suspicion and fear which would shape the first half of the

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and Bellow likes total control of his material (1992, 58). While Bellow has had no experience in Hollywood, it is known that Fitzgerlad paid Hollywood three unsuccessful visits. His only screen credit was the Three Comrades script which he worked on in 1937 and his contract were not often renewed. The topic, as will be discussed in this book, has been exhaustively studied by various critics, notably Aaron Latham (1971), Edwin Arnold (1977), Alan Margolies (1978), Ruth Prigozy (1980), Gene D. Phillips (1986), Wheeler W. Dixon (1986), L. E. Ward (1987), Joane E. Raph