03 Vowel Signs
Various systems have been developed that also represent the vowels and therefore can fix the pronunciation of the sacred texts. The system of vowel letters is old (9th century b.c.): Individual consonant signs stand for vowels. Systems of punctuation that could determine the pronunciation precisely were invented later (5th–9th century a.d.).
03.1 Vowel Letters
Jod and Waw
The half-vowels Jod (י) and Waw (ו) as consonants can be made silent after vowels. They continue in Scripture, appearing now to mark the vowel standing there.
Alef and He
The end sounds Alef (א) and He (ה) as consonants can be cancelled out and appear now to mark the final vowel.
Finally, vowel letters are also written in cases where no consonant was dropped.
The Individual Vowel Letters
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