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Cross-Media Promotion

Jonathan Hardy

Cross-Media Promotion is the first book-length study of a defining feature of contemporary media, the promotion by media of their allied media interests. The book explores the range of forms of cross-promotion including synergistic marketing of mega-brands such as Harry Potter; promotional plugs in news media; repurposing media content, stars and brands across other media and outlets; product placement, and the integration of media content and advertising.
Incorporating specialist literature, yet written in a clear, accessible style, the book combines three areas of study: media industry practices, media policy, and media theory. It examines the dynamics of cross-media promotion across converging media, drawing on a range of examples from the United States and the United Kingdom. Synergy and intertextuality are explored alongside critical debates about the ‘problems’ of cross-promotion. The book also offers a critical evaluation of media policy responses from the late 1980s to the present, which the book argues, have failed to grapple with the problems of media power, market power and commercialism generated by intensifying cross-media promotion.


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Part 1: Contexts


P A R T 1 Contexts C H A P T E R O N E Dynamics and Varieties of Cross-Media Promotion Cross-media promotion takes an increasing variety of forms including cross- platform advertising, the synergistic marketing of mega-brands such as Harry Potter or Disney products, promotional plugs in news programmes, repurposing media content, stars and brands across other media and outlets, product placement and integration of media content and advertising. Cross- media promotion (CMP) has been integral to the marketing and diffusion of new media forms and has become more widespread and strategically important across all mass media. Major changes in media systems including increasing concentration of ownership, integration of firms and convergence of industries, digitalization and marketisation have influenced the scale and scope of cross-promotion and its myriad evolving forms. Altogether, these changes have led to cross-media promotion becoming one of the defining features of corporate media in the 21st century. This chapter focuses on the American media system since the factors giving rise to CMP, and the resulting forms, are most advanced and evident there. The United States best illustrates the trajectory and tendencies of cross-media promotion across advanced media systems. Defining Cross-Media Promotion Marketers use the term cross-media promotion to describe any promotional campaign that uses more than one medium. There is nothing new about the promotion of brands across more than one medium. The term, cross-media promotion, however is used by marketers to refer to a planned promotional strategy in which multiple media are used...

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