The Contributions of the Gülen Movement
Edited By Ori Z. Soltes and Margaret A. Johnson
Chapter 1: Socrates, Violence, Education, the Gülen Movement and Peace Ori Z. Soltes 7
• C H A P T E R O N E • Socrates, Violence, Education, the Gülen Movement and Peace Ori Z. Soltes Socrates, Definition, Ethics and Dialogue ocrates’ mode of thought was defined by at least three key issues. The first was definition. He was constantly wrestling with his interlocutors for their failure to define the terms they were using, thereby leaving them open for a host of errors in both thought and action.1 Thus Socrates would ask us to define “violence” and part of his procedure for getting at that definition would be to ask whether there are different kinds of violence.2 He would no doubt distinguish between violence that occurs in nature—such as the violence of a tsunami or a flood or a volcanic eruption— and that which is human-made. The latter is part of war and every battle within a war, as it is part of smaller-scaled murder. He (and we) might further distinguish public violence—in international, domestic (in the sense of national) or communal contexts (each of these distinguished from each other as subsets of public violence)—from private violence: that is, violence within the context of and against one’s family. Still further, he might distinguish acts of violence that involve a group of people, however large that group, from acts that involve only one person acting against another. In this last case, he might further distinguish violence that leads to the death of the victim from violence that leads to short- or long-term...
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