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An Aural-Performance Analysis of Revelation 1 and 11


Kayle B. de Waal

This book breaks fresh ground in the interpretation of the Apocalypse with an interdisciplinary methodology called aural-performance criticism that assesses how the first-century audience would have heard the Apocalypse. First-century media culture is probed by assessing the dynamics of literacy, orality, aurality, and performance in the Gospels, parts of the Pauline corpus, and also Jewish apocalyptic literature. The audience constructs of informed, minimal, and competent assist the interpreter to apply the methodology. Sound maps and an aural-performance commentary of Revelation 1 and 11 are developed that analyze aural markers, sound style, identity markers, repetition, themes, and the appropriation of the message by the audience. The book concludes by examining the sociological, theological, and communal aspects of aurality and performance and its implications for interpreting the Apocalypse.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data De Waal, Kayle B. An aural-performance analysis of Revelation 1 and 11 / Kayle B. de Waal. pages cm. — (Studies in biblical literature; Vol. 163) Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Bible. Revelation, I—Criticism, interpretation, etc. 2. Bible. Revelation, XI—Criticism, interpretation, etc. 3. Oral tradition. 4. Performance—Religious aspects—Christianity. I. Title. BS2825.52.D445 228’.06—dc23 2015000922 ISBN 978-1-4331-3003-8 (hardcover) ISBN 978-1-4539-1542-4 (e-book) ISSN 1089-0645 Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the “Deutsche Nationalbibliografie”; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at

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