Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Noriko Suzuki
Almost sixty years after the signature of the Treaty of Rome in 1957 creating the European Community), a Member-State, the United Kingdom, has for the first time in history decided to leave the European Union. The "yes" to leave vote during the British referendum on 26 June 2016 led to the use of Article 50 of the EU Treaty triggering off a long period of negotiations between the UK and the EU, which was overshadowed by a permanent struggle between the options of a "deal" or a "no-deal". The Withdrawal Agreement was finally signed on 24 January 2020 and Brexit actually took place on 31 January 2020 – more than three and a half years after the referendum. It is not surprising that a lot of analyses have been put forward to explain the British electoral result, mainly from the perspective of political sociology. However, there has been less research so far on the deeper roots of Brexit as a historical and political process and its development from the start of the referendum campaign until the end of the negotiations between the UK and the EU, nor on its possible social, economic, legal and (geo)political consequences.
In order to examine the origins and consequences of Brexit, this publication develops two original perspectives. On the one hand, it has taken a pluridisciplinary approach comparing the point of views of sociologists, political scientists, legal experts and historians. On the other hand, it has adopted a global approach by comparing the analyses of Japanese, Canadian, American and European researchers. These "Global Views on Brexit" regroup the contributions to an international Conference on "The Consequences of Brexit" organised on 6-7 December 2018 in Strasbourg, in the framework of the Jean Monnet project on Crises in European Border Regions supported by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union (EU) for the period from 2018-2020.
Brexit and Its Impact on the Integration of Migrants in the UK (Seiko Oyama)
Although long-term net migration continues to add to the United Kingdom (UK) population, according to the Office for National Statistics, different trends have been observed since 2016. After the Brexit referendum, the number of European Union (EU) citizens coming to the UK for work has decreased while the number of those leaving the UK has increased. Since 2016, EU net migration has fallen, although EU citizens still arrive for long-term settlement. Non-EU net migration has continued to increase since 2013. In 2019, approximately 642,000 people moved to the UK, while 402,000 left.
Although Brexit might cause a change in the pattern of movements for EU and non-EU citizens, it will hardly stop the inflow of new arrivals for settlement. The integration of migrants is a challenge for a host country because national economic and social policies need to not only provide for their needs but also ensure that have access to public services and the labour market. Without effective integration policies and measures, migrants are more likely to be exposed to the risk of social exclusion or poverty. Being a Member State of the EU, the UK has benefited from the policy framework and support tools for integration provided across the EU. Since the Justice and Home Affairs Council adopted the Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy in the EU in 2004,1 the European Commission has provided the framework and many tools such as handbooks, networks and National Contact Points...
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