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New trends and methodologies in applied English language research III

Synchronic and diachronic studies on discourse, lexis and grammar processing

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Sofia Bemposta-Rivas, Carla Bouzada-Jabois, Yolanda Fernández-Pena, Tamara Bouso, Yolanda J. Calvo-Benzies and Iván Tamaredo

This volume includes eleven papers pertaining to different areas of linguistics and organised into three sections. Part I contains diachronic studies which cover data from Middle English to Present-Day English and which explore phenomena such as the status of extender tags, the distribution of free adjuncts, post-auxiliary ellipsis, and the use of ‘ephemeral’ concessive adverbial subordinators. Part II comprises studies on grammar and language processing dealing with topics such as the interaction between syntactic and structural complexity and verbal agreement with collective subjects, the influence of distributivity and concreteness on verbal agreement, the interaction of complexity and efficiency in pronoun omission in Indian English and Singapore English, and the methods and approaches used for grammar teaching in modern EFL/ESL textbooks. Finally, Part III revolves around lexis, discourse and pragmatics, with papers that discuss the development of the discoursal representation of social actors in Argentinian newspapers after the military dictatorship, the construction of women’s gender identity through positive and negative emotions in women’s magazines, and spelling-to-sound correspondence on Twitter.

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Referential links in -ing and -ed free adjuncts in Late Modern English (Carla Bouzada-Jabois)

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CARLA BOUZADA-JABOIS University of Vigo – carla.bouzada@uvigo.es

Referential links in -ing and -ed free adjuncts in Late Modern English1

1.  Introduction

The main objective of this paper is to discuss the different referential links existing between verbal free adjuncts (FAs) and their main clauses in the Late Modern English (LModE) period and to check whether core­ference exerts some influence on other characteristics of the FA construction.2 Verbal FAs, such as the emphasized sequence in (1) below, are subjectless nonfinite constructions which are usually detached from the main clause. This detachment is often indicated by punctuation marks in writing or intonation in speech. Together with detachment, a whole set of features characterise these nonfinite constructions as supplements or extra-clausal constituents (Huddleston and Pullum et al. 2002: 1265–1266). FAs are said to be syntactically independent due to their lack of (syntactic) integration in the main clause. This licenses their mobility, so that they can occupy different positions in the sentence. Semantically, ← 39 | 40 → they convey some kind of adverbial meaning affecting the clause to which they are attached and, most importantly for the purposes of this chapter, they usually maintain a referential link with a constituent in the main clause. In example (1), the subject of the main clause, Cortes, is coreferential with the subject of the FA.

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