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From International to Local English – And Back Again

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Roberta Facchinetti, David Crystal and Barbara Seidlhofer

All languages encode aspects of culture and every culture has its own specificities to be proud of and to be transmitted. The papers in this book explore aspects of this relationship between language and culture, considering issues related to the processes of internationalization and localization of the English language. The volume is divided into two sections, complementing each other; the first one (Localizing English) focuses on the significance of ethnic knowledge, local culture, and tradition wherever English is used. The second one (Internationalizing English) deals with the degrees and patterns of internationalization of English deriving from its contact with diverse cultures and its adaptation to different professional settings and communicative purposes.

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MARTA DEGANI The Pakeha myth of one New Zealand /Aotearoa: An exploration in the use of Maori loanwords in New Zealand English 165

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MARTA DEGANI The Pakeha myth of one New Zealand /Aotearoa: An exploration in the use of Maori loanwords in New Zealand English 1. Introduction From the earliest years of systematic colonisation, Maori lexical input has been and remains at the core of how we define ourselves as New Zealanders (Macalister, 2004: 34) As Macalister points out, perception of identity in New Zealand (henceforth NZ) seems to be inextricably related to the specific lan- guage-contact history of the country. In other words, the complex process of a national identity construction has been strongly affected by contacts which occurred at different stages and for a number of diverse reasons between the local variety of English developed in this part of the Southern hemisphere and the language of the indig- enous inhabitants of NZ, the Maori people. The long history of colo- nisation of NZ as a white settler colony made Maori subject to lin- guistic influence from English. English, however, was also susceptible and receptive to linguistic input coming from Maori. In light of this scenario, the present chapter focuses on the im- pact of Maori on New Zealand English (NZE) from a lexical per- spective. More precisely, it investigates the presence of Maori bor- rowings in this English variety – a crucial issue in discussions of identity. In fact, the use of certain Maori terms makes NZE markedly different from other Englishes, and it can be seen as an indication of New Zealanders’ reaction to the threat of globalizing tendencies in favour...

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