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Corpora in Translation

A Practical Guide

Series:

Tengku Sepoa Tengku Mahadi, Helia Vaezian and Mahmoud Akbari

Corpora are among the hottest issues in translation studies affecting both pure and applied realms of the discipline. As for pure translation studies, corpora have done their part through contributions to the studies on translational language and translation universals. Yet, their recent contribution is within the borders of applied translation studies, i.e. translator training and translation aids. The former is the major focus of the present book.
The present book in fact aims at providing readers with comprehensive information about corpora in translation studies in general, and corpora in translator education in particular. It further offers researchers and practitioners a comprehensive and up-to-date survey of studies done on corpora in translator education and provides a rich source of information on pros and cons of using different types of corpora as translation aids in the context of translation classrooms.

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Table of contents

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Acknowledgment ................................................................................. ix Introduction .......................................................................................... 1 1 An Introduction to Corpus Linguistics ............................................ 3 1.1. What is Corpus Linguistics? ................................................... 5 1.2. What is a Corpus? ................................................................... 6 1.2.1. The Authenticity of Texts in a Corpus ..................... 7 1.2.2. The Representativeness of the Language Included in a Corpus ................................................. 7 1.2.3. Machine Readable Form ........................................... 8 1.3. Types of Corpora .................................................................... 9 1.3.1. General Reference Corpora ...................................... 9 1.3.2. Monitor Corpora ..................................................... 10 1.3.3. Special Corpora, Special Purpose Corpora, Specialized Corpora ................................................ 11 1.3.4. Parallel Corpora ...................................................... 12 1.3.5. Comparable Corpora .............................................. 13 1.3.6. Learner Corpora ..................................................... 14 1.3.7. Pedagogic Corpora ................................................. 15 1.3.8. DIY Corpora ........................................................... 15 1.3.9. Annotated vs. Raw Corpora ................................... 16 1.3.10. Synchronic vs. Diachronic Corpora ...................... 16 1.3.11. Open vs. Closed Corpora ...................................... 16 1.4. Corpus Compilation .............................................................. 17 1.5. Corpus Analysis Tools ......................................................... 18 1.5.1. Word-frequency Lists ............................................. 19 1.5.2. Type/token Ratio .................................................... 21 1.5.3. Keyword Lists ........................................................ 22 1.5.4. Concordancers ........................................................ 23 vi 1.5.5. Collocations ............................................................ 24 1.5.6. Clusters ................................................................... 25 1.6. Applications of Corpora ....................................................... 27 2 Corpora and Translation Studies ................................................... 33 2.1. Corpora and Translation Universals ................................... 37 2.1.1. Simplification ......................................................... 39 2.1.2. Explicitation ........................................................... 41 2.1.3. Normalization ......................................................... 44 2.1.4. Levelling out ........................................................... 45 2.2. Corpora and Translation Evaluation ................................... 46 2.3. Corpora and the Study of Translator’s Style and Ideology .......................................................................... 47 2.4. Corpora and Professional Translators ................................. 49 2.5. Corpora and Computer-based Translation Aids ................ 53 2.6. Corpora and Translation Competence ................................ 55 2.7. Corpora and Translator Education ...................................... 58 3 What Information can Corpora Offer to Translators?.................... 63 3.1. Collocational Information .................................................... 65 3.2. Information on Words’ Natural Occurrence ...................... 68 3.3. Conceptual Information ....................................................... 68 3.4. Terminological Information ................................................. 69 3.7. Information on Semantic Prosody ....................................... 73 3.8. Information on Cognates...

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