Between Freedom and Energy
Edited By Galina Michaleva and Andrey Ryabov
Galina Michaleva - Liberal Opposition Under Authoritarianism - 199
Galina Michaleva Liberal Opposition Under Authoritarianism Regime Changes and Institutional Conditions for the Opposition in Russia The logic of development of a “fake democracy”, i.e. an authoritarian state with the formal presence of democratic institutions is related to the deconsolidation of democratic institutions and their delegiti- mization in public opinion. The results of elections become predict- able and are principally not changeable. In order to strengthen its position, the ruling group creates a system of shielding mechanisms and includes a propaganda machine This creates local and fractional repressions of those people who represent a real or potential (even weak) danger to the ruling system. To ensure the compliance of rep- resentatives of the political and business elite, ruling powers organ- ize staged repressions and create external and internal enemies to justify such actions. Such actions are authorized by a state-controlled judicial authority. At the same time, blocking legitimate ways of regime change leads to intensiﬁed latent conﬂicts and an increased pressure on a society and stimulates the emergence of still very weak forms of resistance. Democracy as a transitional solution1 ceases to satisfy the domi- nant actor who strives to strengthen his position. Even democratic institutions established and guaranteed by the Constitution begin to fade away. Competition vanishes from the election process. “Dele- gate,” “defective,” limited, monitored, fake democracy is replaced with apparent authoritarian formations. Furthermore, applying Sartori’s 1 Пршеворский А., Демократия и рынок: политические и экономические реформы в Восточной Европе и Латинской Америке. М., 1999. pp. 92–93. 200 Galina Michaleva criteria for the identiﬁcation of authoritarian and totalitarian systems2 in our...
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