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Ecological Migration

Environmental Policy in China

Edited By Masayoshi Nakawo, Yuki Konagaya and Shinjilt

In the context of the current wave of global environmental concern, this book considers measures aimed at solving environmental problems, investigating the example of ecological migration.
The term «ecological migration» refers to the organized migration of people engaged in occupations that cause ecological destruction, aimed at rehabilitating and conserving the affected areas. In the vast arid and semi-arid regions that constitute the steppes of Inner Mongolia, grassland vegetation is in imminent danger due to overgrazing. Therefore, the herders are made to migrate to other areas in order to ensure regeneration of the affected grasslands. This book’s contributions are guided by questions such as: What has been the result of the strategy of ecological migration? Have the grasslands successfully been conserved? And can the desertification of Inner Mongolia be prevented?
The essays collected in this volume originate from a workshop on ecological migration held in Beijing, China, in 2004, and were published in Japanese and Chinese, both in 2005. They have been adopted as a textbook in university classes in Japan and China, and were updated and translated for the English publication.

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Introduction: Remote regions of western China and “ecological migration” SHINJILT ......................................................................................... 11 I Questioning ecological aspects? Can “ecological migration” result in environmental conservation? 1 The beginnings of “ecological migration” in the Heihe River valley from case studies in Ejene banner, Alasha League of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region YUKI KONAGAYA ...................................................................... 43 2 The groundwater resource crisis caused by “ecological migration” Case studies of Mongolian pastoralists in Ejene Banner, Alasha League in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region KANAKO KODAMA ................................................................... 61 3 New round of grassland cultivation accompanying “ecological migration” From case studies of herders in Xianghuang Banner, Shilingol League, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region SUYE ......................................................................................... 79 4 Forest restoration without reliance upon “ecological migration”: From a case study of NGO activities in Guizhou Province YOSHIKI SEKI and XIANG HU.................................................. 97 II Questioning economic aspects: Can “ecological migration” achieve a reduction in poverty? 5 The mechanism of poverty resulting from “ecological migration” From case studies of herders in Minghua District, Sunan Yogor Autonomous County, Gansu Province MAILISHA ................................................................................. 121 10 Contents 6 The effectiveness of “ecological migration” in reducing poverty (1) A case study based on the Tarim River Basin, Xingjiang LI JINGYI .................................................................................. 137 7 The effectiveness of “ecological migration” in reducing poverty (2) Lessons from the Implementation of Ecological Migration in Alasha League, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region SHI GUOQING ......................................................................... 159 8 The voluntariness of migration under the “ecological migration” policy: from case studies of herders in Ordos City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region SHUNJI ONIKI and B. GENSUO ............................................... 185 III Questioning cultural aspects: What kind...

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