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From Post-Communism toward the third Millennium

Aspects of Political and Economic Development in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe from 2000-2005

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Josette Bär

This volume presents an overview of the political and economic developments in Eastern and South Eastern Europe in the years 2000 to 2005. Unlike the Central European states that achieved EU membership in 2004 and 2007, the countries in this volume, Bulgaria being the exception, share but one characteristic: diversity. One could call the phenomenon of the region’s variety and diversity the Eastern European pluralism of development. The essays present detailed analyses of the region’s main problems: corruption and bribery on all levels of society; a lack of transparency of state-business relations; a distinct disinterest in international critique or, rather, a distinct insistence on sovereignty and the refusal to adapt to European humanitarian standards of ethnic and religious tolerance. The essays are based on unique source material from the countries under scrutiny.

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I. Ukraine Between the Orange Revolution and the EU

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28 29 G. P. E. Walzenbach European Governance and Transformation in Ukraine 1. The European governance perspective in the transition context It is generally agreed that social scientists and students of transi- tion want a good society.1 Frequently, in the context of East and Central Europe this political goal is associated with membership and active participation in the European Union (EU). As a con- sequence, the European Commission’s vice-president Günter Ver- heugen expects that in 20 years from now all ‘European countries’ will have joined this organisation.2 His optimism about the future prospects of the integration process, however, are qualified by an important exception: countries of the post-Soviet space such as Rus- sia, Moldova, Belarus and Ukraine are unlikely to become part of the club.3 While not all parts of the political elite or the general public in these countries have been disappointed by this statement, it received considerable attention in the political community of Ukraine with its “post-Orange Revolution” confirmation of a 1 An earlier version of this chapter was presented at the 47th Annual Conven- tion of the International Studies Association, 22–25 March, 2006, San Diego, California. The author also wishes to acknowledge the support of the Open Society Institute during his posting as a Resident Scholar in the Department of International Relations and Diplomatic Service at the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Ukraine. 2 Anatoliy Halchynsky, “A Response to Verheugen”, The Day, 7 March 2006. 3 Thus repeating his earlier, equally pessimistic, assessments reported...

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