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Property rights and their violations - La propriété violée

Expropriations and confiscations, 16 th –20 th Centuries- Expropriations et confiscations, XVI e –XX e siècles

Edited By Luigi Lorenzetti, Michela Barbot and Luca Mocarelli

Interest in the history of ownership rights is growing and spreading to different disciplines. Historians are turning their attention mainly to the rise of private and individual ownership as it was codified in 19 th -century liberal Europe. In writing this history, however, their perspective has too often ignored the other side of the coin, namely the restrictions which the sovereign imposed on such rights, allegedly in the interest of the community.
The papers collected in the present volume suggest that private property is not necessarily the most safeguarded legal model, hence it is not less vulnerable to violation. They construct a close analysis of the most common forms of abuse of private property on record – expropriation, seizure, and confiscation – perpetrated by public authorities. They also seek to define the uneasy, often intricate relation between legal and legitimate. In a perspective of lights and shadows, the role of confiscation and expropriation changes : now seen as powerful instruments of change, now as enduring factors of conservation in the evolution of private ownership rights.
Les droits de propriété sont depuis longtemps au cœur de l’intérêt de diverses disciplines. L’attention des historiens s’est focalisée surtout sur la naissance de la propriété privée et individuelle telle qu’elle a été codifiée dans l’Europe libérale du XIX e siècle. Toutefois, son histoire a trop souvent négligé l’autre face de la médaille, à savoir les limites fixées à ce droit par le souverain au nom de l’intérêt de la collectivité. Les contributions figurant dans ce volume suggèrent que la propriété privée individuelle ne représente pas le modèle juridique le plus apte à la protéger face aux risques d’infraction. Au cœur des analyses il y a les formes historiques de la violation de la propriété privée – expropriations, saisies, confiscations – perpétrées par les autorités et le rapport, souvent complexe et ambigüe, entre les dimensions de la légalité et de la légitimité. Dans un jeu d’ombres et de lumières, les confiscations et les expropriations se dessinent à la fois comme de puissants instruments de changement et de tenaces facteur de conservation dans l’évolution des formes de propriété.

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The Italy-Libya Agreement of 2 October 1956. The Bank of Italy’s Assets in Libya after World War II - Donatella Strangio 295

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The Italy-Libya Agreement of 2 October 1956. The Bank of Italy’s Assets in Libya after World War II Donatella Strangio Introduction Familiarity with the economic interests shared between the Bank of Italy and Libya can provide a good platform for a deeper understanding of the relations between these two states and two peoples in the current global context. This research was conducted mainly through documentary sources that were col- lected by the Bank of Italy and which are kept in its historical Archive. The Bank of Italy was called upon to operate in Libya by the Italian government during Italy’s colonial period before World War II. International organizations requested that the Bank work in Libya after the war due to the specific skills and experience it had acquired in the area. The British occupation of Libya in 1943 led inevitably to a series of social, political and economic consequences, including, among others, the Anglo-Italian agreement of 1951, which called for the seizure and custody by the British authorities of different Italian companies that operated in that country. The branches of the Bank of Italy in Libya were closed when the introduction of British military authority pound destabilised the fiscal situation and effectively put them out of business. The Bank’s Libyan branches reopened in 1951, when the United Nations, in accordance with Resolution no. 388, declared Libya an independent and democratic State1. This 1 Archivio Storico della Banca d’Italia (hereinafter : ASBI), Banca d’Italia, Studi, pratt., n. 530, fasc. 1, fasc. 2,...

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