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The Reception of Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Europe

UK, Spain, Italy, Poland, Denmark, France and Germany

Edited By Pablo Romero-Fresco

This is the first volume to deal specifically with the quality of subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH) in Europe, with contributions from the UK, Spain, Italy, Poland, Denmark, France and Germany. Drawing on the results of the EU-funded project DTV4ALL, the book looks at the issue of quality in the reception of SDH in Europe as a combination of three factors: what viewers think about SDH, how they understand these subtitles and how they view them. The viewers’ preferences have been obtained through questionnaires and their comprehension has been analysed with tests, involving clips with SDH and questions. The viewers’ perception has been measured with eye-tracking technology, involving the analysis of 71,070 subtitles in what is so far the largest international eye-tracking study on subtitling. With this research, we have sought to obtain both subjective (preferences) and objective (comprehension and perception) data that can inform national guidelines on SDH. The book also introduces the notion of viewing speed and points to the existence of certain universals of SDH and subtitling that can contribute to advance our understanding of how different types of viewers from different nationalities view, process and understand subtitles as a means to access audiovisual content.
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Eye tracking in Poland

← 234 | 235 →Chapter 9

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Abstract: This chapter presents the results of the DTV4ALL eye-tracking tests on SDH in Poland. The tests consisted of (1) collecting participants’ demographic data, (2) watching 23 subtitled videos, while participants’ eye movements were monitored with an eye tracker, (3) completing comprehension questions after each clip and (4) completing a post-test survey on participants’ preferences concerning particular subtitling solutions. A total of 39 participants with different degrees of hearing loss took part in this study. The results showed the best comprehension scores among hearing viewers. The highest comprehension scores were achieved with standard and verbatim subtitles and the lowest with highly edited subtitles.

Keywords: edited subtitles, eye movements, eye tracking, fixations, Poland, verbatim subtitles

This chapter presents the results of the DTV4ALL eye-tracking tests on SDH in Poland36. The tests consisted of:

In total, the number of participants in the eye-tracking tests in Poland was 39. They were divided into three groups based on their degree of hearing loss: (1) the deaf, (2) the hard of hearing and (3) the hearing as the control group.

Table 1: Participants by age and degree of hearing loss.



The number of male and female participants was almost the same (46% and 54% respectively).

Table 2: Participants by gender and hearing loss.



All our participants attended both primary and secondary school, and 15 of them are graduates of higher education institutions.

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