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Security, Democracy and Development

In the Southern Caucasus and the Black Sea Region

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Edited By Ghia Nodia and Christoph H. Stefes

Since the early 1990s, the southern Caucasus and its larger neighbourhood, the Black Sea region, have experienced deep and sometimes painful transformations, including bloody conflicts. They have also become an arena of geopolitical and geoeconomic competition between great powers. This has attracted growing attention from social scientists. In this volume, authors from universities in Europe, the United States and the southern Caucasus focus on several of the most topical problems of the region, particularly how nascent states and societies grapple with the results of unresolved ethno-territorial conflicts and how they try to construct new civil societies from the cultural mosaic that they inherited from their Soviet past. How do elements of democracy and autocracy combine in the political regimes of the new states? Can the West have an effect on their internal development and, if so, how? How do the rich mineral resources of the Caspian region influence the development of the region’s economies and define the geopolitical standing of these countries?
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Foreign Policy Particularities of the De Facto States in the Black Sea Region

State Recognition

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ABSTRACT: There are four separatists regions in the Black Sea area, which, at different stages of the conflicts development, have proclaimed independence – Transnistria, Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia and Abkhazia. In this chapter we will analyse the mechanisms and peculiarities of the diplomatic relations of these unrecognized states. We will pay special attention to the instruments they use in negotiation, despite their non-recognized status, and we will examine how they interact with third states and whether recognition by some states adds legitimacy to the foreign policy of ex-Georgian regions. We will study the question of whether other states and international organizations can deal with these unrecognized states by traditional diplomatic means and standards or whether they need a new diplomatic approach.

KEYWORDS: unrecognized states, Transnistria, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Nagorno-Karabakh, foreign policy analysis.

There are many examples in history when different separatist movements or ethnic groups proclaimed their independence. Most of these cases led either to war or to the full sovereignty of a new state. There are just a few examples when such proclamations resulted in a situation when there was no actual war but de facto states were created, which are not recognized but operate their own internal policy and foreign policy, while their final status still being under negotiation.

There are four separatist regions in the Black Sea area, which, at different stages of their conflicts development, have proclaimed independence – Transnistria, Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The Russian Federation only recognized the...

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