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Security, Democracy and Development

In the Southern Caucasus and the Black Sea Region

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Edited By Ghia Nodia and Christoph H. Stefes

Since the early 1990s, the southern Caucasus and its larger neighbourhood, the Black Sea region, have experienced deep and sometimes painful transformations, including bloody conflicts. They have also become an arena of geopolitical and geoeconomic competition between great powers. This has attracted growing attention from social scientists. In this volume, authors from universities in Europe, the United States and the southern Caucasus focus on several of the most topical problems of the region, particularly how nascent states and societies grapple with the results of unresolved ethno-territorial conflicts and how they try to construct new civil societies from the cultural mosaic that they inherited from their Soviet past. How do elements of democracy and autocracy combine in the political regimes of the new states? Can the West have an effect on their internal development and, if so, how? How do the rich mineral resources of the Caspian region influence the development of the region’s economies and define the geopolitical standing of these countries?
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States over Markets? Development of a Turkish Gas Hub and its Effects on Regional Energy and Security

The State of Play in International Energy

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ABSTRACT: A long period of neoliberal discourse regarding energy matters in Europe has significantly altered the logic and narratives underpinning the issue of energy markets and supply security. Drawing on a range of international political economy perspectives, this chapter’s argument is twofold. Firstly, featuring the case study of Turkey, it argues that state participation in delivering energy-supply security in the Black Sea and the Caucasus (BSC) region has been unrivalled. Secondly, it argues that, for a state to deliver patterns of enhanced interdependency that lead to energy security regionally, measures including market regulation would need to be involved to ensure the development of an energy market. As the period of neoliberal discourse regarding energy in Europe continues, in Turkey the state role in the field of energy supply security and transit is being further strengthened with implications for energy and security within the BSC region.

KEYWORDS: energy security, energy market liberalization, Turkey, gas hub, energy diplomacy, EU energy policy, energy supply dependence, BOTAŞ

Neoliberal energy security discourse is rooted in the concept of sustainable development that was first introduced into public policy debate in the 1980s to link the then-unfolding environmental politics with economic development. Since its emergence, this discourse has occurred in three underpinning issue areas: (i) social, (ii) economic and (iii) environmental. Owing to the emerging discourse’s normative strength, these three issue areas have been widely applied to public policy and management of hydrocarbon energy in the EU, which is an energy-consuming...

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