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Scientific diasporas as development partners

Skilled migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa in Switzerland: empirical evidence and policy responses- Preface by Jean-Baptiste Meyer

Edited By Gabriela Tejada Guerrero and Jean-Claude Bolay

Over the last two decades, globalisation has accelerated international migration flows, particularly of skilled labour. Yet increasing migration by skilled workers from developing countries («brain drain») has raised serious concerns internationally about the adverse development impact on their countries of origin. This book, however, highlights the positive aspects of skilled labour migration as scientific diasporas are playing a growing role in the transfer of technology, skills and knowledge («brain gain») to their home countries. This is a very significant development in a globalised world where science, technology and knowledge can trigger economic and social transformations. The book presents solid empirical evidence of the contributions scientific diasporas make to their countries of origin, based on primary surveys of skilled migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa employed in Switzerland, a major destination country. The findings lead to a better understanding of the motives for migration, the profile of the scientific diaspora communities in Switzerland, and the varied ways in which they help their home countries. The book makes a significant contribution to the international policy debate and dialogue on migration and development. In particular, it shows how to leverage the potential of scientific diasporas as agents of home country development, by identifying good practices and offering specific recommendations for the countries of origin and of destination.

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Chapter 6 The Indian Scientific Diaspora in Switzerland by Ibrahima Amadou DIA 315

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Chapter 6 The Indian Scientific Diaspora in Switzerland Ibrahima Amadou DIA1 Table of Contents 1. Introduction and Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 1.1.1 Context and Research Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 1.1.2 Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 1.1.3 Conceptual Framework and Definition of some Key Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 1.2 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 1.2.1 Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 1.2.2 Preliminary Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 1.2.3 Sample Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 1.2.4 The Interview Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 1.2.5 Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 1.3 India: Social, Economic and Political Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 1.4 Switzerland: Immigration Policies and Bilateral Cooperation With India . . . . . . . . . . 344 2. Socio-demographic Characteristics of the Respondents, Causes and Characteristics of the International Highly Skilled Migration to Switzerland and Migrants Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 2.1 Socio-demographic Characteristics of the Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 2.2 Causes of International Migration, Migrants’ Paths and Migrants’ Life . . . . . . . . . . . 355 2.2.1 Causes of International Skilled Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 2.2.2 Reasons for Choosing Switzerland and Information Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 2.2.3 Migration Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 2.2.4 Daily Life Experience, Living and Working Conditions of Highly Skilled Indians in Switzerland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 3. Skilled Diaspora, Transnationalism and Brain Gain: Are Indian Skilled Diaspora in Switzerland Catalyst of Scientific, Technological, Social and Economic Development of the Country of Origin? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 3.1 Indian Skilled Diaspora and Governmental Policies toward Highly Skilled Indian Abroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 1 Department of Sociology, University of Geneva. 316 3.2 Indian Skilled Diaspora in Switzerland as Catalyst of Scientific, Technological, Social and Economic Development of India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 3.2.1 Contacts with the Country of Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 3.2.2 Contacts with the Country of Destination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 3.2.3 Contacts at Regional and International Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 3.2.4 Knowledge...

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