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Networks of Empire

The US State Department’s Foreign Leader Program in the Netherlands, France, and Britain 1950–70

Series:

Giles Scott-Smith

Exchange programmes have been a part of US foreign relations since the nineteenth century, but it was only during and after World War II that they were applied by the US government on a large scale to influence foreign publics in support of strategic objectives.
This book looks at the background, organisation, and goals of the Department of State’s most prestigious activity in this field, the Foreign Leader Program. The Program (still running as the International Visitor Leadership Program) enabled US Embassies to select and invite talented, influential ‘opinion leaders’ to visit the United States, meet their professional counterparts, and gain a broad understanding of American attitudes and opinions from around the country.
By tracking the operation of the Program in three key transatlantic allies of the United States a full picture is given of who was selected and why, and how the target groups changed over time in line with a developing US-European relationship. The book therefore takes a unique in-depth look at the importance of exchanges for the extension of US ‘informal empire’ and the maintenance of the transatlantic alliance during the Cold War.

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Preface .................................................................................................. 11 Abbreviations ....................................................................................... 15 INTRODUCTION. Networks of Empire. The Foreign Leader Program in Global Perspective ....................... 21 Defining Public Diplomacy ................................................................ 25 Informal Empire.................................................................................. 28 The Aims of the Program.................................................................... 33 The Challenge of Soviet Public Diplomacy........................................ 37 The Foreign Leader Program’s Global Scale...................................... 39 Organisation of the Book.................................................................... 45 PART I. HISTORY AND APPARATUS CHAPTER 1. The History of US Government Exchanges ................ 49 Laying the Foundations....................................................................... 49 Strategy: Psychological Warfare and the Focus on Elites................... 57 Smith-Mundt and the Campaign of Truth........................................... 65 CHAPTER 2. Implementing the Leader Program .............................. 75 The Administrative Apparatus............................................................ 75 Public-Private Cooperation................................................................. 88 Programming the Grantees ................................................................. 94 PART II. THE NETHERLANDS IN THE 1950S CHAPTER 3. The PvdA and the Transatlantic Anti-Communist Alliance ................................... 103 The Netherlands after WWII ............................................................ 103 The Partij van de Arbeid and the Atlanticist Turn ............................ 106 Mobilising Domestic Anti-Communism: Evert Vermeer ................. 110 8 A Rising Star: J.M. den Uyl.............................................................. 114 Organising Government Propaganda: Joop Landré .......................... 119 The Threat of Bevanism: Hein Vos .................................................. 129 A Dutch Cold Warrior: Frans Goedhart............................................ 133 CHAPTER 4. The Trade Unions, Socio-Economic Policy and the American Model ........................... 145 The Trade Unions and the Marshall Plan.......................................... 145 The Worldview of the Dutch Trade Unions...................................... 148 Searching for ‘Spiritual Factors’: Frans Fuykschot .......................... 153 Useful Allies: Reint Laan and Pieter Bogaers................................... 157 Building Transatlantic Linkages with Dutch Technocrats................ 163 The Transfer of Industrial Skills and Methods ................................. 169 Engaging the Catholic Minority........................................................ 177 The 1960s and the Shift to Managing Elites ..................................... 181 CHAPTER 5. Spreading the Word: Culture and the Media ...................................................................... 189 Targeting the...

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