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EU Enlargement

Current Challenges and Strategic Choices


Edited By Finn Laursen

Successive enlargements of the EU have constituted major events in the history of European integration. They affect the Union’s institutions, policies and policy-making processes and, because of the impact of these changes, enlargements have often been controversial. The major enlargement in 2004, which took the EU from 15 to 25 member countries, was followed by Romanian and Bulgarian membership in 2007 and Croatian membership in 2013.
It is often argued that there is now enlargement fatigue, and progress towards the next step seems slow. However, a number of countries, especially in the Western Balkans, are eager to join, and Turkey has been an official candidate since 1999. Major challenges lie ahead for the candidates as well as the EU. Will the candidates be able to carry out the required reforms to fulfil the membership conditions, and will the EU be able – politically and institutionally – to widen its membership further? These decisions are of strategic importance for the future of Europe.
This book analyses the issues involved, exploring the status of the ongoing enlargement process and the political games associated with it.


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PART II CONDITIONALITY, COMPLIANCE, EUROPEANISATION 87 The Multiple Dimensions of Compliance in the European Union Lessons for Applicant States Heather A. D. MBAYE Introduction The European Union has neither the budgetary nor the bureaucratic capability to directly implement its own laws; it must depend on mem- ber states. Officials within the member states often take (or fail to take) actions that cause the member state to fail to comply with EU policy. This paper seeks to identify the causes of non-compliance and examine applicant states’ potential ability to comply. First, I examine compliance theory and the goodness of fit ideas that arise from Europeanisation.1 Then, I review several case studies of compliance, discussing how each fits into the theoretical framework. I present quantitative tests of non- compliance and, in light of the political and economic realities of Tur- key, Iceland, and Balkan applicant states I use the results to predict compliance viability. Compliance in International Regulatory Regimes A theory of EU compliance can begin in international regulatory re- gimes literature. Here, authors debate the extent to which characteristics of international structures affect compliance. Much of this debate pits the enforcement approach against the management approach (see Chayes and Chayes 1995 and Downs, Rocke and Barsoom 1996). 1 This paper uses the concepts of compliance and implementation almost interchange- ably, due to the sources of theory I use. Treib (2008, 4) suggests that implementation has grown out of domestic politics, and “…refers to ‘what happens after a bill be- comes a...

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