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Pela Paz! For Peace! Pour la Paix!



Edited By Maria Manuela Tavares Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Rollo and Isabel Maria Freitas Valente

Peace is generally defined as a state of non-belligerency between states. This means that it is defined negatively as the absence of war. So is peace just a pause between two wars?
In French, the term is significant: peace is considered a slice of life between two conflicts. Thus, we speak of the early 20 th century as the «Belle Époque» and we talk about the «interwar period», which implies the failure of peace.
Twenty years after the end of the Great War, another, even more terrible conflict began. At the same time, an inversion of values took place in European minds that along with the horrors of war made it very difficult for any Franco-German reconciliation to take place. We would have to wait for the end of the Second World War and its consequences to speak of peace as a realistic utopia.
This volume brings together a number of articles in Portuguese, French and English – on topics such as «thinking peace», intellectuals and peace, federalism and universalism, religiosity and secularism, women and peace, and campaigns and mobility – from many prestigious experts and young researchers. They bring new ways of thinking and interdisciplinary perspectives, and provide an attentive, critical reading of the core subject. This volume proposes to substantiate concepts, projects, movements, speeches, images and representations, and to deepen the knowledge of the key personalities who thought about peace between 1849 and 1939.
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Pacifist and pro-European Italian socialism between the two World Wars. G.E. Modigliani’s proposals and requests in the international context


Pacifist and pro-European Italian socialism between the two World Wars

G.E. Modigliani’s proposals and requests in the international context*

Donatella Cherubini**

Abstract: This research is founded on my precedent studies with an adequate and renewed insertion of Socialist internationalism in the debate on Peace and Europe, widespread between WWI and the 1930’s. Such an interlacement finds its synthesis in the formula “between the League of Nations and the United States of Europe”, in front of the novelties, crisis and international confrontations inside both Pacifist and Europeanist movements between the two World Wars.

The International Meeting For Peace! offered a relevant opportunity to participate in one of the first – maybe the very first – Scholars Conference for the anniversary of the First World War.

The outbreak of the War was a fundamental turning-point in European history and nowadays we are actually compelled to remind new generations of the context in which it happened; the consequences it brought; the politicians and activists who tried to avoid/prevent it and afterwards to propose means for a new international order1. ← 255 | 256 →

They were defeated in the 1920s and the 1930s until the Second World War. However what they requested very often represents an anticipation of contemporary integrated Europe2. Among standard-bearers of pacifism and Europeanism in front of the First World War a prominent role was played by the Italian Socialist Giuseppe Emanuele Modigliani (brother of the famous painter), reformist leader and syndicalist organiser...

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