CHAPTER IV The Repression of German Nationalism 73
Chapter IV The Repression of German Nationalism Critical and independent thinking was encouraged in 19th century Germany by an improved system of education, greater mobility, the growth of librar- ies, increased availability of books and periodicals, and the rise of reading societies.1 Such a “reading cabinet” was illustrated ca. 1840 by Heinrich Lukas Arnold in a painting now in the Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin.2 And there were opposition newspapers, such as the Rheinische Zeitung edited by Karl Marx.3 But the Restoration regimes were on their guard against nationalism and liberalism. National movements and all forms of dissent were repressed. “Demagogues” were persecuted. The German Confederation functioned best as an instrument of repression and as an impediment to progress,4 and all of Germany was like a prison, run by police terror and spies under the watchful eye of Count Klemens von Metternich.5 Many of the German monarchs, particularly Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia, did not grant the constitutions which they had promised.6 1 Schulze, The Course 59. Nipperdey, Germany 520–21, speaks of a “reading revolution.” Levinger, Enlightened Nationalism 198, notes the improvements to public education in Prussia. Ute Planert in Die Erfindung 72–73. Harald Biermann in Preußen: Der kriegerische Reformstaat 135. 2 Kg 63/6 (MfDG). Deutsches Historisches Museum, German History 84–85. Deutsches Historisches Museum, Deutsche Geschichte 138. 3 Golo Mann, Deutsche Geschichte 143 and 171. Id., History of Germany 82–83. Vossler, Die Revolution 56. Nipperdey, Germany 345, 348, and 552. Sperber, The European Revolutions 59....
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