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Semantics and Word Formation

The Semantic Development of Five French Suffixes in Middle English

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Cynthia Lloyd

This book is about the integration into English of the five nominal suffixes -ment, -ance, -ation, -age and -al, which entered Middle English via borrowings from French, and which now form abstract nouns by attaching themselves to various base categories, as in cord/cordage or adjust/adjustment. The possibility is considered that each suffix might individually affect the general semantic profile of nouns which it forms. A sample of first attributions from the Middle English Dictionary is analysed for each suffix, in order to examine biases in suffixes towards certain semantic areas. It is argued that such biases exist both in real-world semantics, such as the choice of bases with moral or practical meanings, and in distinct aspects of the shared core meaning of action or collectivity expressed by the derived deverbal or denominal nouns. The results for the ME database are then compared with the use of words in the same suffixes across a selection of works from Shakespeare. In this way it can be shown how such tendencies may persist or change over time.

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Bibliography 283

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Bibliography Primary Sources A. Dictionaries An Anglo-Norman Dictionary, 1977, ed. L.W. Stone and W. Rothwell, London: Anglo- Norman Text Society. Cassell’s Latin Dictionary, 1960, London: Cassell & Co. A Chronological English Dictionary, 1970, ed. T. Finkenstaedt, E. Leisi and D. Wolf, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitatsverlag. Dictionnaire de l’ancienne langue française, 1969, ed. F. Godefroy, Nendeln/ Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint. The Middle English Dictionary, 1969, ed. H. Kurath and S.M.Kuhn, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Mittellateinisches Worterbuch, 1967, Munich: C.H. Beck. The Oxford English Dictionary, 1989, ed. J.A.H. Murray, H. Bradley, W.A. Craigie, C.T. Onions et al., Oxford: Clarendon Press. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 1983, ed. W. Little, H.W. Fowler, J. Coulson, revised C.T. Onions, Oxford: Clarendon Press. B. Edited texts Barratt, A. (ed.), 1992, Women’s Writing in Middle English, London: Longman Group. Bennett, J.A.W. and G.V. Smithers (eds), 1966, Early Middle English Verse and Prose, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Benson, L.D. (ed.), 1987, The Riverside Chaucer, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chaplais, P. (ed.), 1954, The War of Saint-Sardos (1323–5), London: Camden Soc., 3rd ser., vol. 87. Hall, J. (ed.), 1920, Early Middle English, Oxford: Clarendon Press. 284 Bibliography Kristol, A.M. (ed.), 1995, Manieres de Langage (1396, 1399, 1415), London: Anglo- Norman Text Society. Rigg, A.G. (ed.), 1968, The English Language: A Historical Reader, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Rothwell, W. (ed.), 1990, Walter of Bibbesworth, Tretiz de Langage, London: Anglo- Norman Text Society, Plain Texts Series 6. Rutherford, A. (ed.), 1932, The Anglo-Norman Chronicle of Nicholas Trevet, unpub- lished PhD...

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