PART ONE - Culture and Language Learning -1
Part One Culture and Language Learning Chapter One Culture Throughout this book we will be concerned with culture, psychology, and language acquisition. We will see how closely knit culture and language are and that they need to be taught/learned simultaneously. We will first take a closer look at what culture and language are (Part One) and then delve into some of the aspects that af fect both of them (Part Two). But first we need to define what culture is and see how cultural psychologists perceive culture. Culture is the human-made part of the environment (Herskovits, 1948). It can be viewed as part of the human phenotype, the distinctive design that enables us to survive, prosper, and reproduce. Culture emerges from our lifestyle, and it occurs as individuals pool and accumulate their discoveries, and institute customs and traditions to organize their labors and settle their conf licts (Pinker, 2002, p. 60). Markus and Hamedani (2007) define culture “as patterns of repre- sentations, actions, and artifacts that are distributed or spread by social interaction” (p. 11). Culture should not be a study of collections of people such as the Japanese, the Americans, the Germans, but it should be a study of how psychological processes may be formed explicitly and implicitly through the context, the cultural systems, and the worlds in which indi- viduals live and thrive. Therefore, the focal point should be on the explicit and implicit patterns of practices, meanings, and artifacts found through- out the environments in which persons...
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