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Strategic Rebellion

Ethnic Conflict in FYR Macedonia and the Balkans

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Pavlos Ioannis Koktsidis

Since the end of the Cold War, the consolidation of peace and security in south-eastern Europe has been one of the most complex and troublesome issues facing the international community. The sequence of conflicts in the Balkans has resulted in serious loss of life, economic collapse, and a number of controversial interventions, leading contemporary scholars to reconsider old perceptions about violent ethnic conflict. Drawing on a wealth of theoretical and empirical sources, this book tackles some of the prevailing questions on the root causes and management of ethnic conflict. Under what conditions do ethnic minorities become violent? How credible are the theories of «relative deprivation» and «greed» in explaining the outbreak of conflict? Is the use of coercive diplomacy a superior alternative to direct military forms of intervention? This book provides an analytical account of the socio-economic roots of ethnic conflict, the opportunities for violent mobilization and the success of strategic coercion in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and it also examines related developments in Kosovo and the Balkans.

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Appendix 2Chronology of Major Events: 1991–2007 237

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Appendix 2 Chronology of Major Events: 1991–2007 15 September 1991: The Socialist Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia declares its independence from Yugoslavia. 11–12 January 1992: More than 90 per cent of Albanians in FYR Macedonia approve autonomy in a referendum. The issue hinges on the degree of autonomy sought by the Albanians of FYR Macedonia. 7 April 1992: Representatives of the Albanian population declare the auton- omy of the “Albanian Autonomous Republic of Illyria”. 11 December 1992: The UN Security Council decides in its resolution 795 to deploy/reassign 700 Blue Helmets to FYR Macedonia. 8 April 1993: FYR Macedonia is admitted to the UN (the 181st member) under the provisional name of the “Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” (FYROM). 16–17 February 1994: Greece imposes an economic blockade on FYR Macedonia. 17 February 1995: Violent clashes erupt between ethnic Albanians and Slav Macedonian police. Deputies from the ethnic Albanian Party of Democratic Prosperity begin to boycott parliamentary sessions. 13 September 1995: Greece and FYR Macedonia sign an interim accord in New York which is intended to normalize bilateral relations. The dispute about the national f lag is settled. 4 July 1996: More than 10,000 ethnic Albanians rally in Tetovo, protesting against the jailing of Fadil Sulejmani, the Dean of Tetovo University. Demonstrators demand the university’s legalization and its integra- tion into the of ficial education system. 9 July 1997: Two ethnic Albanians are killed and many more wounded following clashes between police and hundreds of Albanians in Gostivar....

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