Edited By Izabela Krasnicka and Magdalena Perkowska
We gathered articles concerning not only many European countries but also the United States and a special contribution is made to the system in California (USA). Each part is a unique guide through internal regulations leading to different legal professions. The articles present the academic education system in the field of law and also special requirements and professional exams giving the right/permission to perform legal professions. The reader will see the differences and similarities especially in the European systems of the presented countries.
JOAN MIQUEL RASCAGNERES - THE PROFESSION OF LAWYER IN THE PRINCIPALITY OF ANDORRA 5
The Profession of Lawyer in the Principality of Andorra Joan Miquel RASCAGNERES The Principality of Andorra, that achieved the legal status of state in 1993 with the approval of its Constitution, places its historical origins in an act named “Els Pareatges”, signed in 1278 by the Bishop of La Seu d’Urgell, a small Spanish city situated in the frontier with Andor- ra, and the Count of Foix. The rights of the Count of Foix have passed to the President of the French Republic and, today, the Head of state of Andorra is jointly the Bishop of La Seu d’Urgell and the President of the French Republic. Until the Second World War, Andorra was considered an agricul- tural society, and accessing the country was very difficult due to the geographical features. The courts, in their historical form, were created by “Els Pareatges”, in the civil field as well as in the penal one. Nevertheless, until the beginning of the Second World War, no lawyer acted as such in the Principality. Andorrans resorted to the services of those lawyers in La Seu d’Urgell. On the other hand, the University of Andorra was founded approximately twenty years ago and therefore no Andorran could obtain a university degree in the Principality. It is only after the Second World War that some lawyers from Spain settled in the Principality. Their degree as Lawyer was recog- nised because they satisfied the conditions required for the exercise of the profession in Spain. Nevertheless, their role was limited....
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