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Jerusalem in the Achaemenid Period

The Relationship between Temple and Agriculture in the Book of Haggai

Jieun Kim

This is the first book to explore the importance of agriculture in relation to the restoration of the Jerusalem temple in the Book of Haggai during the Achaemenid period. Scholars discussing the rebuilding of the temple have mainly focused on the political and social context. Additionally, the missions of Ezra and Nehemiah have been used as a basis for analysing the economy of postexilic Judah. This has, however, understated the wider socio-economic significance of the temple by disregarding the agricultural capacity of Judah.
The Book of Haggai is primarily concerned with agriculture and the temple. This analysis of Haggai includes an examination of the temple’s reconstruction from a historical and economic point of view, with agriculture playing a central role. Archaeological records are examined and show that prized commodities such as olives and grapes were produced in and around Jerusalem in large quantities and exported all over the ancient Near East.
This book is intended to shed new light on the value of agriculture for the people of Judah and the whole imperial economy. It also presents a new interpretation of the Book of Haggai and a new perspective on the temple economy in Jerusalem.

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Achaemenid vii, ix, 2–14, 21–2, 42, 49–50, 52, 54, 55–6, 58, 60–2, 75–85, 87–95, 100, 103–9, 117, 123–4, 126–39, 142–3, 151–4, 156–61, 163, 165, 194–5, 199, 213–14, 217–8, 225, 227–33, 236–7, 242, 248, 253, 258, 261–5, 270–2, 277–9 agriculture vii, 1–4, 13, 15, 21–4, 26–7, 32–4, 36–9, 41, 43, 44, 46, 50–1, 53, 60, 86, 89–90, 92, 97, 107, 138–41, 160, 168, 172, 177–9, 183–5, 199, 239, 244, 245, 250, 256, 258, 277, 280 agricultural calendar 36, 90, 160, 236, 255 agricultural economy 11, 21, 36, 44, 62, 133, 135, 141–3, 182, 193, 199–200, 231, 258, 277, 279 Ahura Mazda 85 ancient Near East vii, ix, x, xiii, 2–3, 11–14, 21–33, 37–8, 47–50, 54, 59, 76, 78, 81, 105, 107, 118, 136–7, 171, 197–8, 201–2, 204, 210, 232, 257–8, 277 animal husbandry 3, 27–31, 37, 45, 47, 53, 68, 185 Arabia 45, 56–60, 102, 104–5, 107, 120, 137, 213 arable land 27, 49, 51, 53, 182, 184, 186 Arabs 59, 61, 65, 103–8, 121, 129, 137, 193 Arad 33–4, 36–7, 60, 71, 105, 137 archaeology ix, xii, xiii, 5, 32, 34–5, 38, 40, 43, 57, 105, 117–18, 121, 123–4, 126, 129, 132, 141 Ashdod 5, 58, 106, 107, 113,...

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